Plant-Bird Relationship (Version 3.0)

posted in: Plants, References | 0

Nearly 400 species of plants are listed under algae, lichens, bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) ferns, non-seed (Gymnosperms) and seed (Angiosperms) plants in this order. Seed plants are further listed under Dicotyledons (two seed-leaves) and Monocotyledons (one seed-leaf). Except for algae, lichens and bryophytes, all other groups are listed under their respective families. Under each plant species are the different species of birds that had been documented visiting it for shelter, food (nectar, fruit or insect), nesting materials and nest sites. Links to the original posts (where available) are provided. References to publications in books, journals, etc. are listed at the end of this post.

Unavoidably, plants are listed under their scientific names as there is no standardised list of common names. On the other hand birds are listed under their common names as there is a standardised list following Craig Robson’s “A field guide to the birds of South-east Asia. New Holland, London, 2008”. This is as far as I can go to make the list as reader friendly as possible,

More than ten years of data collected by hundreds of nature enthusiasts mainly from Singapore and Malaysia and posted in the BESG website have now been updated. Version 1.0 posted in January 2013 can be referred to HERE and version 2.0 HERE.

l-r: Spirogyra sp., lichen and Pyrrosia piloselloides
l-r: Spirogyra sp., lichen and Pyrrosia piloselloides

As with such a long list stretching back to more than ten years, there will invariably be human errors as well as “internet rot”, especially to links. Should users encounter such problems, please inform us so that we can make necessary corrections.

ALGAE
1. Filmentous aglae
Storks
Painted Stork – plant (Khng 2013)

2. Spirogyra sp.
Munias
Javan Munia: plant (Tuen 2013)
Scaly-breasted Munia – plant (Amar-Singh 2009f, 2013c; Wells 2007)

LICHENS
Broadbills
Banded Broadbill – nest-material (Choo, I. 2007)
Canary-flycatcher
Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher – nest-material (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Drongos
Ashy Drongo – nest/nest-material (Chasen 1939)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – lichen/fungi (Amar-Singh 2010c)
Minivets
Fiery Minivet – nest-material (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Small Minivet: nest-material (Chasen 1939)
Monarchs
Black-naped Monarch – lichen (Ong 2008)
Swiftlets
Glossy Swiftlet – nest-material (Leong & D’Rozario 2014)
Trillers
Pied Trillers – nest-material (thallus) (Spittle 1949)
Woodshrikes
Large Woodshrike – nesting (Robinson 1028)

BRYOPHYTES (mosses and liverworts)
Broadbills
Banded Broadbill – nest-material (Choo, I. 2007)
Bulbuls
Buff-vented Bulbul – nest-material (Chasen 1939)
Bullfinches
Brown Bullfinch – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Canary-flycatchers
Grey-headed Canary-flycatcher – nest-material (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Drongoes
Ashy Drongo – nest/nest material (Chasen 1939)
Fulvettas
Rufous-winged Fulvetta – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Gerygones
Golden-bellied Gerygone – nest-material (Kwong 2012)
Magpies
Black Magpie – nest-material (Leong & Lim 2014)
Monarchs
Black-naped Monarch – nest-material (O’Neill 2012)
Niltavas
Large Niltava – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Robins
White-tailed Robin – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Sunbirds
Copper-throated Sunbird – nest-material (Chasen 1939)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nest-material (Chasen 1939)
Tailorbirds
Mountain Tailorbird – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Tits
Sultan Tit – nest-material (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Warblers
Chestnut-crowned Warbler – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Whistling-thrushes
Blue Whistling-thrush – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye – nest-material (plant) (Wee et al. 2007)
Woodshrikes
Large Woodshrike – nesting (Robinson 1928)

FERNS
1. Asplenium nidus (bird’s nest fern)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (Wee 2006n)
Doves
Peaceful Dove: nesting (O’Neill 2008)
Eagle-owls
Eagle-owl – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Fish-owls
Buffy Fish-owl – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927; J.Y. Tou pers. comm.)
Peafowls
Indian Peafowl – nesting (Chan & Chan 2006)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – leaf-bath (Sun 2015b)

2. Davellia denticulata (rabbit’s foot fern)
Doves
Spotted Dove – nest-material (Wee 2014)

3. Gleichenia sp. (resam)
Tailorbirds
Rufous-tail Tailorbird – leaf-bath (Choo, T.J. 2009)

4. Pyrrosia piloselloides (dragon’s scale fern)
Broadbills
Banded Broadbill – nest-material (Choo 2007)
Dusky Broadbill – nest-material (Cheah 2009; Choo, I. 2009; Ong 2008)
Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul – nest-material (stem/leaf) (Wee 2015e)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (Subaraj & Wee 2006, Tan & Wee 2008)
Spiderhunters
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter – nest (Amar-Singh 2015)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – forage (Amar-Singh 2010)
Woodshrikes
Large Woodshrike – nest-material (O’Neill 2012)

GYMNOSPERMS (non-seed plants)
CUPRESSACEAE
1. Juniperus chinensis (Chinese juniper)
Doves
Spotted Dove- nesting (Amar-Singh 2010)

CYCADACEAE
1. Cycas edentata = C. rumphii (Malayan fern plant)
Munias
White-headed Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)

GNETACEAE
1. Gnetum gnemon (belinjau)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Tan, S. 2013)

PINACEAE
1. Pinus sp. (pine)
Pond-herons
Chinese Pond-heron – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)

l-r: Mangifera indica, Annona muricata and Cerbera odollam
l-r: Mangifera indica, Annona muricata and Cerbera odollam

ANGIOSPERM-DICOTYLEDONS
ACANTHACEAE
1. Barleria sp.
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nest-material (bract) (Spittle 1949)

2. Sanchezia sp.
Spiderhunters
Streaked Spiderhunter – nectar (Ong 2008)

AMARANTHACEAE
1. Amaranthus sp.
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – insect (Amar-Singh 2011)

2. Celosia argentea (cockscomb)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2009)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow- fruit (Sobrielo 2009)

AMPELIDACEAE
1. Cissus repens
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Chasen 1939)

ANACARDIACEAE
1. Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)
Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul – fruit (Robinson & Chasen 1927)

2. Campnosperma auriculata (terantang)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Corlett & Lucas 1989)

3. Gluta malayana (rengas)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – nesting (Ng, A. 2007)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Ng, A. 2007)

4. Mangifera indica (mango)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Robinson & Chasen 1927; Teo & K 2014)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Kwong 2013)
Doves
Spotted Doves – nesting (Lee, J. 2008)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback – forage (J. Ho pers. comm.)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – fruit (Sandhu-Chin 2010)
Kites
Black-shouldered Kite – nesting (Amar-Singh 2012)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011l; Cheong, W.C. 2010)
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet – fruit (Kwong 2013)
Rose-ringed Parakeet – fruit (Karen Goh 2016)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Teo & K 2014)
Woodpeckers
Laced Woodpecker – nesting (Chasen 1939)

5. Spondias sp. (hog-plum tree)
Woodpeckers
Laced Woodpecker – nesting (Chasen 1939)

ANNONACEAE
1. Annona muricata (soursop)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Tan, T.S. 2009)

2. Polyalthia sp.
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)

3. Polyalthia viridis
Hornbill
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

APOCYNACEAE
1. Allamanda sp. (allamanda)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2014; Amar-Singh 2016)

2. Allamanda cathartica (golden trumpet)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nesting (Chow 2008)

3. Alstonia sp. (pulai)
Swallows
Barn Swallow – roost (Wu & Wee 2007)

4. Alstonia angustiloba (common pulai)
Orioles
Black-necked Oriole – nesting (Spittle 1949)

5. Cerbera odollam (pong pong)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Chow 2013d; Lim & Wee 2009; Wee, J. et al. 2006)

6. Dischidia astephana
Yellownapes
Lesser Yellownape – ants (Amar-Singh 2014)

7. Dischidia hirsute
Sunbirds
Purple-naped Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2015)

8. Dischidia major (ant plant)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird – (KK Tan & Y Wee 2016)

9. Hoya australis
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (KF Yap 2015)

10. Hoya diversifolia (wax plant, porcelain plant)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (KF Yap 2015)

11. Hoya verticillata (Ridley’s hoya)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (KF Yap 2015)

12. Tabernaemontana corymbosa (great rosebay)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Lai 2008)

13. Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander)
Corella
?Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Hall 2008)

14. Wrightia religiosa (wild water plum)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nest-material (seed pappus) (Teo 2012c), seed-dispersal (Ng, A. 2006)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeons – nesting (Wee 2005)
Sunbirds
Sunbird – nectar (Tan, R. 2011)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Sun 2012)

ARALIACEAE
1. Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nectar (Wee 2008)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – ?nectar (Wee 2008)
Friarbirds
Helmeted Friarbird – flower (O’Neill 2012l)
Lorikeets
Rainbow Lorikeet – flower (O’Neill 2012)
Minors
Noisy Minor – flower (O’Neill 2012)
Mynas
Javan Myna – nectar (Wee 2008)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – nectar (Wee 2008)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Wee 2008)
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Wee 2008)
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye – nectar (Wee 2008)
Woodpeckers
Banded Woodpecker – insect Wee 2007)

AVICENNIACEAE
1.
Avicennia sp. (api api)
Egrets
Great Egret – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Herons
Grey Heron – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet – leaves (Kwong 2010)
Rose-ringed Parakeet – leaves (Kwong 2010)
Storks
Milky Stork – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Woodpeckers
Laced Woodpecker – nesting (Chasen 1939)

l-r: Spathodea campanulata, Durio zibethinus and Tillandsia usneoides
l-r: Spathodea campanulata, Durio zibethinus and Tillandsia usneoides

BIGNONIACEAE
1. Spathodea campanulata (African tulip)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nectar (Wee & Hale 2007), fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Crows
House Crow – roost (Sodhi & Sharp 2006)
Mynas
Javan Myna – nectar (Sun 2011; Tan, S. & Subaraj 2010)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – flower bud (Finlay, M. 2017
Monk Parakeet – seed (Tong, C.N. 2017)
Red-breasted Parakeet – seed (Chua 2007; Yap 2011; flower Finlay 2017; flower bud Thomas Liang 2016)
Rose-ringed Parakeet – fruit (Lim, S.T. 2012)
Spiderhunters
Spectacled Spiderhunter – nectar (Lim, A. 2009)
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter – nectar (Lim, A. 2009)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – nectar (Wee & Hale 2007)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2009)
Tailorbirds
Tailorbird – nest-material (seed) (Chan & Chan 2006)

2. Tabebuia rosea (pink tecoma)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Sun 2011)

BOMBACACEAE
1. Bombax sp.
Hanging-parrots
Vernal Hanging-parrot – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – flower (Robinson & Chasen 1927)

2. Ceiba pentandra (kapok tree)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nest-material (Goh, J.H. 2012; Hails & Jarvis 1987; Wee 2006j; Wee, J. 2012)
Palm-swifts
Asian Palm-swift – nest-material (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Tan, T.S. 2010)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – nest-material (Amar-Singh 2012k; O’Neill 2012)
Treeswifts
Grey-rumped Treeswift – ?nest-material (O’Neill 2012)
Trillers
Pied Triller – nest-material (Amar-Singh 2013)

3. Coelostegia borneensis (wild durian)
Hornbills
Great Hornbill – fruit (Tang & Wee 2016 )

4. Durio zibethinus (durian)
Barbets
Brown Barbet – nest/roost (O’Neill 2013) TO CHECK!!!
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (Wee 2008f)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Goh & Heng 2006)
Herons
Purple Heron – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Cheah & Wee 2007; Cremades & Lim 2012)
Kingfishers
Collared Kingfisher – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Laughingthrushes
White-crested Laughingthrush – fruit (Polunin 2007)
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird – fruit (O’Neal 2012)
Spiderhunters
Spiderhunter – nectar (Cheong, L.F. 2011)
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter – nectar (O’Neill 2011)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – nest-material (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Sunbirds
Plain-throated Sunbird – fruit (Goh & Heng 2006)
Treeswifts
Grey-rumped Treeswift – nesting (O’Neill 2012)
Woodpeckers
Laced Woodpecker – ?fruit/insect (Goh & Heng 2006; Tan, D.J.X. 2012)
Woodshrikes
Large Woodshrike – nesting (O’Neill 2012)

BORAGINACEAE
1. Carmona retusa (=Ehretia microphylla)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)
White-eyes
Japanese White-eye – fruit (Cho, J. 2011)

BURSERACEAE
1. Canarium euphyllum
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

CACTACEAE
1. Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)
Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul – fruit (Wee & Tan 2013)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Wee & Tan 2013)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)

CAMPANULACEAE
1. Pratia begoniaefolia (creepin pratia)
Partridges
Malayan Partridge – fruit (Robinson 1928; Robinson & Chasen 1936)

CANNABACEAE
1. Trema tomentosa (rough trema)
Bulbuls
Cream-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Scaly-breasted Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Spectacled Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Fairy-bluebirds
Asian Fairy-bluebird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010), nesting (Spittle 1949)

CARICACEAE
1. Carica papaya (papaya)
Barbets
Gold-whiskered Barbet – fruit (Redzian 2008; O’Neill 2009a)
Lineated Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Red-throated Barbet – fruit (O’Neill 2008a, 2009)
Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul – fruit (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – seed (Wee 2010), fruit (Amar-Singh 2011, 2014)
Cockatoos
Yellow-crested Cockatoo – fruit (Chow 2012)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Wee 2010)
Doves
Spotted Dove – seed (Wee 2010)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Tan, T.S. & Wee 2008; Tan, T.S. 2009b; Cremades & Lim 2012)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Chan & Chan 2008; (Luce Sam 2015)
Mynas
Javan Myna – seed (Wee 2010)
Jungle Myna – fruit (Amar-Singh 2015)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2014)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (O’Neill 2013)

CASUARINACEAE
1. Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina, ru)
Herons
Grey Heron – nesting (TC 2009)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Cremades & Lim 2012)
Kites
Brahminy Kite – nesting (Chua 2007)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – seed (Chow 2009; Wells 2007)
Mynas
Javan Myna – young needles (Sodhi & Sharp 2006)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – forage (Cheong, W.C. & Sun 2011)
Purple-backed Starling – needle-branch (Cheong, W.C. & Sun 2011)
Swifts
House Swift – nest-material (needle-branch) (Spittle 1949)
Trillers
Pied Triller – nest-material (needle-branch) (Spittle 1949)
Woodpeckers
Grey-capped Pygmy Woodpecker – forage (Chasen 1939; Robinson & Chasen 1927)

CELASTRACEAE
1. Bhesa robusta
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Tsang et al. 2007)

COMBRETACEAE
1. Lumnitzera sp.
Woodpeckers
Great Slaty Woodpecker – nesting (Chasen 1939)

2. Lumnitzera littorea (teruntum merah)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Ng, M. 2009)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Ng, M. 2009)
Purple-throated Sunbird – nectar (Ng, M. 2009)

3. Quisqualis indica (Rangoon creeper)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – insect (Amar-Singh 2009)

4. Terminalia catappa (sea almond)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Goh, J.H. 2011; Kwong 2010b)
Crows
House Crow – roost (Sodhi & Sharp 2006)
Lories
Chattering Lory – fruit (Wee, J. 2013)
Parrots
Blue-naped Parrot – fruit/flower (Soh 2009)

COMPOSITAE
1. Ageratum conyzoides (white weed)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nesting (Amar-Singh 2011e)

2. Pluchea indica (beluntas)
Prinias
Yellow-bellied Prinia- nesting (Spittle 1949)

3. Senecio sp.
Pipits
Paddyfield Pipit – nesting (Spittle 1949)

4. Tridax procumbens (coat buttons)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011d)
Sparrows
Java Sparrow – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)

CONVOLVULACEAE
1. Ipomoea aquatica (water convolvulus, kangkong)
Cormorants
Indian Cormorant – forage (Leong 2012)
Little Cormorant – forage (Leong 2012)

2. Merremia tridentata = ?M. hirta (tree-toothed Malayan bindweed)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (stem) (Spittle 1949)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nest-material (leaf) (Spittle 1949

CUCURBITACEAE
1. Luffa aegyptica (luffa)
Doves
Spotted Dove – nesting-material (stem/tendril/leaf) (Wee 2014)

DILLENIACEAE
1. Dillenia suffruticosa (simpoh air)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Choo, T.J. 2009; Chua M. 2009; Tan, S. 2012)
Cream-vented Bulbul – fruit (Ong 2008)
Olive-winged Bulbul – fruit (Wee, J. 2013)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – leaf-bath (Wee 2007)
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – leaf-bath (Choo T.J. 2008)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – seed (Chua, M. 2009; Wee, J. 2008), petal (Lim, P.B. 2009)
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird – fruit (Ong 2008)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeets – fruiting-bud (Chan, Y.M. 2006; Tan, M. 2010)
Red-breasted Parakeet – fruiting bud (Choo, T.J. 2009)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nesting (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014; Chua, M. 2009)
Olive-backed Sunbird – leaf-bath (Wee 2007)
Plain Sunbird – seed (AUTHOR)
http://www.besgroup.org/2016/03/19/plain-sunbird-feeding-behaviour-2/”>Amar-Singh 2016)
Purple-throated Sunbird – fruit (Chua, M. 2009)
Tailorbirds
Tailorbird – nesting (Chan & Chan 2006)
Dark-necked Tailorbird – nesting (Tsen 2008)
Tit-babblers
Striped Tit-babbler – leaf-bath (Choo 2008)

DIPTEROCARPACEAE
1. Dipterocarp sp.
Serpent-eagles
Crested Serpent-eagle – nesting (Robonson & Chasen 1927)

2. Dipterocarpus crinitus
Hawks
Black Hawk – nesting (Chasen 1939)

3. Dipterocarpus oblongifolius
Honeyguides
Malaysian Honeyguide – forage (Robinson 1928)

4. Hopea sp.
Hornbills
Wreathed Hornbill – nesting (Robinson 1928)

5. Shorea gibbosa (damar hitam gajah)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Chan et al. 2007; Cremades & Lim 2012; Ng, A. 2007; Tsang et al. 2007)

ELAEOCARPACEAE
1. Elaeocarpus sp.
Barbets
Red-crowned Barbet – fruit (Chan et al. 2006; Wee 2006)

2. Elaeocarpus pedunculatus (blunt-leafed oil-fruit)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nest-material (bark) (Spittle 1949)

l-r: Claoxylon indicum; Macaranga gigantea and Hura crepitans
l-r: Claoxylon indicum, Macaranga gigantea and Hura crepitans

EUPHORBIACEAE
1. Acalypha sp.
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (fruiting head) (Spittle 1949)

2. Acalypha siamensis (teh kampong)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – fruit (Cheong, W.C. 2012)

3. Antidesma bunius (Chinese laurel)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Chow 2013)

4. Baccaurea sp. (rambai)
Hornbills
Wreathed Hornbill – fruit (Robinson 1928)

5. Bridelia tomentoasa (kenidai)
Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul – fruit (Chan & Chan 2014)
Straw-headed Bulbul – fruit (Chan & Chan 2014)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Chan & Chan 2014)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (Chan & Chan 2014)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Chan & Chan 2014)
Pigeons
Rock Pigeon – fruit (Chan & Chan 2014)
Shrikes
Tiger Shrike – fruit (Chan & Chan 2014)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Chan & Chan 2014)

6. Claoxylon indicum (jarak kayu)
Mynas
Javan Myna – seed (Chong, S. 2009)

7. Endospermum diadenum = E. malaccense (moon tree)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Corlett & Lucas 1989)

8. Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (leaf) (Spittle 1949)
Coucals
Lesser Coucal – nest-material (leaf) (Spittle 1949)
Drongo
Ashy Drongo – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Bronzed Drongo – nesting (Chasen, 1939)
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Kites
Black-shouldered Kite – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Spiderhunters
Spectacled Spiderhunter – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nesting/nest-material (bark) (Spittle 1949)
Trillers
Pied Triller – nesting (Spittle 1949)

9. Hura crepitant (sandbox tree)
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet – nesting (Amar-Singh 2009)
Fantails
Pied Fantail – nesting (Amar-Singh 2011)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – flower (Amar-Singh 2010)

10. Macaranga spp.
Bulbuls
Buff-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014)
Olive-winged Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014)
Laughingthrushes
Spectacled Laughingthrush – fruit (S.G. Grace pers. comm.)
Minivets
Ashy Minivet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Thrushes
Orange-headed Thrush – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014)

11. Macaranga bancana (common mahang)
Barbets
Brown Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Gold-whiskered Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Bulbuls
Black-headed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2012, 2013)
Buff-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010q, 2013)
Cream-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2013, 2013)
Hairy-backed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2013)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2013a, 2013)
Scaly-breasted Bulbul – fruit . (Amar-Singh2015)
Spectacled Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2010, 2013, 2013)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh H.S.S. pers.comm.)
Doves
Emerald Dove – fruit (Amar-Singh 2015)
Flowerpeckers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2013)
Blue-and-white Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012)
Mugimaki Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Narcissus Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Rufous-chested Flycatchers – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher – ?insect/fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Ioras
Green Iora – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2013)
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013, 2013)
Greater Green Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2915)
Lesser Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – fruit (Bucknill & Chasen 1990)
Spiderhunters
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2013, 2013)
Little Spiderhunter – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2013)
Spectacled Spiderhunter – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010q, 2013)
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010, 2013)
Sunbirds
Plain Sunbird – nectar/fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2010, 2013; nectar 2013a, 2013)
Purple-naped Sunbird – nectar/fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2010q, 2011, 2013a, 2013)
Red-throated Sunbird – nectar/fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2011, 2013a, Amar-Singh 2013)
Ruby-cheeked Sunbird – nectar/fruit (Amar-Singh 2009i, 2011, 2013, Amer-Singh 2013)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
White-eyes
Everett’s White-eye – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010, 2013, Amar-Singh 2013)

12. Macaranga gigantea (giant mahang )
Barbets
Brown Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016; (Amar-Singh 2015)
Gold-whiskered Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Red-throated Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Bulbuls
Buff-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Cream-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Olive-winged Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Scaly-breasted Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Spectacled Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Cheong, W.C. 2011)
Cuckooshrikes
Lesser Cuckooshrikes – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Doves
Emerald Dove – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Fairy-bluebird
Asian Fairy-bluebird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Flycatchers
Mugimaki Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Hanging-parrot
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – fruit, leaf gall (Amar-Singh 2015)
Ioras
Green Iora – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Great Green Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Orange-bellied Leafbird – fruit (Lim, A. 2009)
Mynas
Myna – fruit (Cheong W.C. 2011)
Minivets
Asian Minivet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Nuthatches
Velvet-fronted Nuthatch –fruit (Lim, A. 2008)
Spiderhunters
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014)
Spectacled Spiderhunter – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Purple-backed Starlings – fruit (Cheong, W.C. 2011)
Sunbirds
Plain Sunbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Purple-naped Sunbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Ruby-cheeked Sunbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Thrushes
Orange-headed Thrush – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Trillers
Pied Triller – fruit (Cheong, W.C. 2011)
White-eyes
Everett’s White-eye – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Oriental White-eye – ?fruit (Amar-Singh 2012; Cheong, W.C. 2011)
Woodpeckers
Banded Woodpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Crimson-winged Woodpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)

13. Macaranga heynei (blue mahang)
Broadbills
Black-and-red Broadbill – nesting (Lim, S.N. 2013)
Bulbuls
Spectacled Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Doves
Spotted Dove – nest-material (leaf) (Wee 2014)
Flowerpeckers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – fruit (Ng, M. 2009; Amar-Singh 2016)
Plain Sunbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Tit-babbler
Pin-striped Tit-babbler – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)

14. Macaranga hypoleuca
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – nesting (Spittle 1949)

15. Macaranga ?rhizinoides
Parakeets
Blue-rumped Parakeet – fruit (Robonson & Chasen 1927)

16. Manihot esculenta (tapioca)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Koh 2009)

17. Manihot glaziovii (wild tapioca)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2009)

18. Pedilanthus tithymaloides (devil’s backbone)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2014)

19. Phyllanthus amarus (child pick-a-back)
Doves
Spotted Dove – fruit (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)

20. Phyllanthus urinaria (pick-a-back)
Doves
Spotted Dove – fruit (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)

l-r: Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Erythrina crista-galli and Albizia samam
l-r: Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Erythrina crista-galli and Albizia samam

FABACEAE (=LEGUMINOSAE)
1. Acacia sp.
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – flower (Robinson & Chasem 1927)

2. Acacia auriculiformis (acacia)
Flameback
Common Flameback – insect (Amar-Singh 2010)
Honey-buzzards
Oriental Honey-buzzard – nesting (Chiu 2005, 2007)
Parakeets
Rose-ringed Parakeet – seed (Chow 2014)
Treeswifts
Grey-rumped Treeswift – nesting (Chan, M. et al. 2007)
Weavers
Baya Weaver – nesting (Seow, B.E. 2009)

3. Acacia mangium
Bulbuls
Olive-winged Bulbul – seed (Amar-Singh 2013)
Red-eyed Bulbul – seed (Amar-Singh 2013)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – seed (Amar-Singh 2013)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Chow 2013)
Plain Sunbird – fr (Amar-Singh 2015)

4. Adenanthera pavonina (saga)
Parakeets
Rose-ringed Parakeet – seed (Chow 2014)

5. Albizia saman (rain tree)
Bee-eaters
Chestnut-headed Bee-eater – roost (Amar-Singh & Lim 2013)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – leaf (Teo, S. 2012)
Crows
House Crow – roost (Sodhi & Sharp 2006)
Hornbills
Great Hornbill – roost (Ng, B. & Wee 2006)
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Cremades & Lim 2012)
Macaws
Red-shouldered Macaw – flower/seed (Chan & Chan 2015a)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet- roost (Ng, B.C. 2013)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2012)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – leaf (Cheong, W.C. 2005)

6. Andira inermis (brown heart)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – flower (C.H. Sun pers. comm.)

7. Arachis pinotoi (creeping peanut plant)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – flower (Amar-Singh 2011)

8. Baphia nitida (camwood)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nesting/roosting (C.H. Sun pers. comm.)

9. Bauhinia sp. (bauhinia)
Sunbirds
Purple-naped Sunbird – nectar (Robinson & Chasen 1927)

10. Bauhinia x blakeana (Hongkong orchid tree)
Bulbuls
Straw-headed Bulbul – petal (Hale 2010)

11. Bauhinia acuminata (white bauhinia)
Mynas
Javan Myna – petal (Sun 2013)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Sun 2013)

12. Bauhinia kokiana (kock’s bauhinia)
Doves
Zebra Dove – nesting (Amar-Singh 2012)
Fantails
Pied Fantail – nesting (Amar-Singh 2011)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – nest-material (Wee 2012)

13. Butea monosperma (flame of the forest, bastard teak)
Sunbirds

Purple Sumbird – nectar (Sayyasith 2017)

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – leaf-bath (Amar-Singh 2012)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2011)
Parakeets
Rose-ringed Parakeet – seed (Chin 2011; Lam, C.S. 2013; Sun 2011e; Sun & Ng 2010), flower (Sun 2013)
Sunbirds
Copper-throated Sunbird – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)

14. Caesalpinia pulcherrima var. flava (peacock flower)
Parakeets
Rose-ringed Parakeet – flower (Sun 2013)

15. Calliandra emarginata (powderpuff tree)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Chow 2013)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nesting (Teo-Guttensohn 2007)

16. Calliandra haematocephala (powderpuff tree)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nectar (Amar-Singh 2009)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2009)

17. Cassis sp.
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (leaf-midrib) (Spittle 1949)

18. Cassia fistula (golden shower)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Banwell 2009; Goh, G. 2009)
Hanging-parrot
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – flower (Weckherlin 2016)
Ioras
Common Iora – insect (Teo 2012)
Trillers
Pied Triller – insect (Teo 2012)

19. Clitoria sp.
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented – flower (Amar-Singh 2013)

20. Clitoria fairchildiana (butterfly pea tree)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Teo 2012)

21. Dalbergia oliveri (tamalan tree)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback – sap-anting (Chow et al. 2014)

22. Delonix regia (flame of the forest)
Doves
Spotted Dove – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Hornblls
Oriental Pied Hornbill – flower bud (Ananth Ramasamy)
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie-robin – nest-material (rachis) (Spittle 1949)

23. Desmodium triflorum (clover-leafed desmodium)
Doves
Spotted Dove – nest material (stem) (Wee 2014)

24. Erythrina sp.
Crows
Slender-billed Crow – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – ?nectar (Ong 2008; Wells 1999)
Mynas
Common Myna – nectar (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Teo 2012)
Woodpeckers
Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker – nectar (Tan, S. 2013)
Trillers
Pied Triller – nest-material (leaf rachis) – Spittle (1949)

25. Erythrina arborescens (Himalayan coral tree)
Yuhinas
Black-chinned Yuhina – nectar (Amar-Singh 2015)

26. Erythrina crista-galli (cockscomb tree)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – nesting (Wee 2005)

27. Erythrina variegate (coral tree)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – nectar (Amar-Singh 2011)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2009)

28. Gliricidia sepium (Mexican Lilac)
Parakeets
Rose-ringed Parakeet – flower (Chow 2014)

29. Leucaena leucocephalia (leucaena, petai jawa)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – seed (Kwong 2010; Tan, T.S. 2010)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbills – ?seed (Tan, T.S. 2010)

30. Mimosa sp.
Weavers
Baya Weaver – nesting (Wee & Tan T.S. 2007)

31. Mimosa pigra (giant sensitive tree)
Weavers
Baya Weavers – seeds (Amar-Singh 2016)

32. Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant)
Coucals
Lesser Coucal – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Pipits
Paddyfield Pipit – nesting (Spittle 1949)

33. Paraserianthes falcataria (albizia)
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet – nesting (O’Neill 2012)
Dollarbirds
Dollarbird – insect (Wee & Ho 2008)
Fish-eagle
Grey-headed Fish-eagle – nesting (Wee & Ho 2008)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback – insect (Wee & Ho 2008)
Hawk-eagles
Changeable Hawk-eagle – nest (Wee & Ho 2008)
Hill-mynas
Common Hill-myna – ?insect (Wee & Ho 2008)
Hornbills
Great Hornbill – nesting (Ng & Wee 2006, Wee, 2006)
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Cremades & Lim 2012)
Rhinoceros Hornbill – nesting (Ng & Wee 2006, Wee, 2006)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – ?fruit (Wee & Ho 2008)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – ?leaf (Cheong, W.C. & Sun 2011)

34. Parkia speciosa (petai)
Hornbills
Helmeted Hornbill – nesting (Robinson 1928)

35. Peltophorum pterocarpum (yellow flame)
Crows
House Crow – nesting (Wu 2006), roost (Sodhi & Sharp 2006)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – nectar (Sun 2013c)
Mynas
Javan Myna – roost (L.K. Wang pers. comm.)
Parakeets
Red-Breasted Parakeet – insect (Kwong 2010)

36. Pithecellobium dulce (Madras thorn)
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet – ?fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Lineated Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Doves
Zebra Dove – ?fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – ?fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie-robin – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Hale 2005)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011, s)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Sunbirds
Olve-backed Sunbird – (Amar-Singh 2016)

37. Pterocarpus indicus (angsana)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – nesting (Chan & Chan 2006; Subaraj 2008)
Crows
House Crow – nesting (Ng, A. 2005), roost (Sodhi & Sharp 2006)
Honey-buzzards
Oriental Honey-buzzard – nesting (Chiu 2005, 2007)
Hornbill
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Chan, M. 2007; Chan & Chan 2006, d; Cremades & Lim 2012; Subaraj 2008)
Mynas
Javan Myna – roost (Sodhi & Sharp 2006; Wang & Wee 2012)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – roost (O’Neill 2007)
Parakeets
Parakeet – roost (Wang & Wee 2012)
Red-breasted Parakeet – nesting (Chan & Chan 2006, 2007a; Subaraj 2008; Wee & Chan, M. 2007)
Scops-owls
Collared Scops-owl – nesting (Mallick et al. 2007)
Starlings
Purple-backed Starling – roost (Wang & Wee 2012)

38. Saraca sp. (saraca)
Sunbirds
Van Hasselt’s Sunbird – nectar (Loei & Subaraj 2013)

39. Saraca cauliflora = S. thaipingensis (yellow saraca)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-Backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Heng 2008)
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher – insect (Tsang & Sreedharan 2009)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Heng 2008; Tsang & Sreedharan 2009)
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Heng 2008; Tsang & Sreedharan 2009)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Heng 2008; Tsang & Sreedharan 2009)
Purple-throated Sunbird – nectar (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Heng 2008; Tsang & Sreedharan 2009)

40. Tamarindus indica (tamarind)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Cremades & Lim 2012)
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet – fruit (Chow 2012j)

GESNERIACEAE
1. Episcia cupreata ‘Acajou’
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Tsang 2012d)

HYPERICACEAE
1. Cratoxylum formosum (pink mempat)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nectar-insect (flower bud) (Wee 2006)
Crows
House Crow – nest-material (twig) (Wee 2006)
Doves
Spotted Dove- nest – material (twig) (Wee 2014)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon- nest-material (Subaraj & Wee 2006; Wee 2005)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – roost (Wee 2014)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Wee 2006)
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Wee 2006g)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Wee 2006)
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye – flower bud (Wee 2006g, 2012)
Woodpeckers
Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker – forage (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)

IXONANTHACEAE
1. Ixonanthes sp.
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – fruit (Bucknill & Chasen 1990)

LABIATAE
1. Salvia sp. (sage)
Sunbirds
Black-throated Sunbird – nectar/insect (Robinson 1928)

2. Salvia splendens (scarlet sage)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow- fruit (Amar-Singh 2014)

LAMIACEAE
1. Vitex pinnata (= pubescens) (Malayan teak)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Chasen 1939)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting/nest-material (leaf) (Spittle 1949)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2017)
Spectacled Spiderhunter – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Triller
Pied Triller – nesting (Spittle 1949)

2. Tectona grandis (teak)
Barbets
Lineated Barbet – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)

LAURACEAE
1. Persea americana (avocado)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – nest-material (Tan, T.S. 2008)

2. Cinnamomum ilicioides
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

3. Cinnamomum iners (wild cinnamon)
Barbets
Red-crowned Barbet – fruit (Wee 2006)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented ulbul – fruit (Bucknill & Chasen 1990)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nesting (Goh, J.H. 2012)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – leaf-bath (Amar-Singh 2012)

4. Cinnamomum subavenium
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

5. Litsea sp.
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)

6. Litsea monopetala
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

LECYTHIDACEAE
1. Barringtonia asiatica (avocado)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Ananth Ramasamy)

LEEACEAE
1. Leea indica (red tree-vine)
Bulbuls
Straw-headed Bulbul – fruit (Chan, W.L. 2009)
Orioles
Black-napre Oriole – fruit (Jackie Ong 2016)

LOGANACEAE
1. Fagraea fragrans (tembusu)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Honey-buzzards
Oriental Honey-buzzard – nesting (Chiu 2005, 2007)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Cremades & Lim 2012)
Kingfishers
Collared Kingfisher – insect (Leong et al. 2006)
Scops-owls
Oriental Scops-owl – roost (Subaraj et al. 2006)
Starlings
Philippine Glossy Starling – fruit (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nesting (Spittle 1949)

Dendrophthoe penatndra l-r: flowers, fruits and seedling growing on a host branch
Dendrophthoe penatndra l-r: flowers, fruits and seedling growing on a host branch

LORANTHACEAE
1. Mistletoes
Bulbuls
Hairy-backed Bulbul – fruit (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Goh, J.H. 2012; Hails & Jarvis 1987; Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2016)
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2016)
Spectacled Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2016)

2. Dendrophthoe pentandra (Malayan mistletoe)
Flowerpeckers
Brown-throated Flowerpecker – fruit (Lim, F.L.K. 2011)
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – nectar (Amar-Singh 2013)
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Cho 2009; Ng, A. 2006, b; Wee 2007)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – fruit Wee, J. 2010, Wee 2011)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Teo 2012; O’Neill 2013a)
Crimson Sunbird – fruit (Wee 2006l)
Olive-backed Sunbird – fruit (Ng, A. 2006), nectar (Wee 2007)
Plain Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2013)
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye – nectar (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)

3. Macrosolen cochinchinensis (common Chinese mistletoe)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Ng, A. 2006; Wee 2006), seed-dispersal (Chan, Y. M. 2007)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – nectar (Wee 2007l)
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird – nectar (Chang 2009)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – fruit (Wee 2006)
Olive-backed Sunbird – fruit (Ng, A. 2006)

4. Scurrula ferruginea (scurfy loranthus)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker – fruit (AmarSingh 2017)
Sunbirds
Plain Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2016)

5. Viscum ovalifolium
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Lim, F. 2011)
Sunbirds
Plain Sunbird – (Amar-Singh 2016)

LYTHRACEAE
1. Lagerstroemia sp.
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nest-material (bark) (Amar-Singh 2009, 2012), forage (Amar-Singh 2011)
Parakeet
Red-breasted Parakeet – fruit (Ananth Ramasamy)

2. Lagerstroemia speciosa (rose of India)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet – seed (Ip & Wee 2011)

3. Pemphis sp.
Frigatebirds
Lesser Frigatebird – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)

4. Sonneratia alba (mangrove apple)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Cremades & Lim 2012)

5. Sonneratia caseolaris (mangrove apple)
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet – fruit (Vaidya 2016)

MAGNOLIACEAE
1. Michelia champaca (chempaka merah)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Sun 2010)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Sun 2010)

MALVACEAE
1. Hibiscus sp. (hibiscus)
Sunbirds
Black-throated Sunbird – nectar (Robinson 1928)

2. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Chinese hibiscus)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nesting (Wee 2008f)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Ong 2008)
Tailorbird
Common Tailorbird – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2009; Chan, M. 2007a; Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2010)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Lim, B.K. 2009a), nest-material (petal) (Spittle 1949)

3. Malvaviscus arboreus (turk’s turban, sleeping hibiscus)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nesting (Amar-Singh 2016)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2010 )

MELASTOMATACEAE
1. Clidemia hirta (clidemia)
Bulbuls: Red-whiskered – fruit (KF Yap)
Flowerpeckers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker – fruit (Chang 2009)
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Ong 2008)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – fruit (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)

2. Melastoma malabathricum (Singapore rhododendron)
Barbets
Red-crowned Barbet – fruit (Chan, Y. M. et al. 2006)
Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul – fruit (YC Wee 2015)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011; Wee 2015)
Coucals
Lesser Coucal – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Flowerpeckers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2015; Ong 2008; Strange & Wee 2008)
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Ong 2008; Strange & Wee 2008; Willis 2008)
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Chow 2012; Ong 2008; Strange & Wee 2008; – Wee 2007)
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker – (Amar-Singh 2017)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit/nest (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Munias
White-rumped Munia – nesting (Amer-Singh 2009)
Prinias
Yellow-bellied Prinia – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nesting/nest-material (Spittle 1949)

3. Osbeckia octandra
Hanging-parrots
Sri Lanka Hanging-parrot – fruit (Tsang 2012c)

l-r: Azdirachta indica,Swietenia macrophylla nd Lansium domesticum
l-r: Azdirachta indica,Swietenia macrophylla nd Lansium domesticum

MELIACEAE
1. Aglaia lawii
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

2. Aglaia spectabilis
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008; Poonswad 2012)

3. Aphanamixis polystachys (pasak lingga)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – nesting (Seow, G. 2006)

4. Azdirachta indica (neem, neem)
Barbets
Lineated Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2012)
Bee-eaters
Blue-tailed Bee-eater – insect (Amar-Singh 2012)
Blue-throated Bee-eater – insect (Amar-Singh 2012)
Chestnut-headed Bee-eater – insect (Amar-Singh 2012)
Bulbuls
Black Bulbul – fruit (O’Neill 2017)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2011, 2012; Goh, J.H. 2012)
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher – insect (Amar-Singh 2012)
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher – insect (Amar-Singh 2012)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2012)
Ioras
Common Ioras – insect (Amar-Singh 2012)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2012)
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie-robin – insect (Amar-Singh 2012)
Mynas
Common Myna – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009; 2012)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, 2011o, 2012)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – insect (Amar-Singh 2009, 2012)
Olive-backed Sunbird – insect (Amar-Singh 2012)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Trillers
Pied Triller – insect (Amar-Singh 2012)

5. Carapa sp.
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Chasen 1939)

6. Chisocheton sp.
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)

7. Dysoxylum sp.
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)

8. Dysoxylum densiflorum
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

9. Khaya grandifolia (African mahogany)
Crows
House crow – roost (Sodhi & Sharp 2006)

10. Khaya senegalensis (Senegal mahogany)
Mynas
Javan Myna – roost (L.K. Wang pers. comm.)

11. Lansium domesticum (duku)
Hanging-parrot
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – forage (O’Neill 2012)

12. Swietenia macrophylla (West Indian mahogany)
Crows
House Crow – roost (Sodhi & Sharp 2006)
Parakeets
Red-Breasted Parakeet – seed (Tsang 2011)
Rose-ringed Parakeet – seed (Tsang 2011)

Ficus elastica l-r: branch, stipule and latex
Ficus elastica l-r: branch, stipule and latex

MORACEAE
1. Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit)
Woodpeckers
Buff-rumped Woodpecker – insect (Chasen 1939)
Rufous Woodpecker – forage (Robinson & Chasen 1927)

2. Artocarpus integer (chempedak)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (leaf) (Spittle 1949)
Doves
Zebra Dove – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback – fruit (Wee, J. & Subaraj 2009)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Trillers
Pied Triller – nesting (Spittle 1949)

3. Artocarpus lacucha
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

4. Artocarpus odoratissimus (terap)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – nest-material (Wee 2012)

5. Ficus sp.
Barbets
Blue-eared Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Brown Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Gold-whiskered Barbet– fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Broadbills
Black-and-yellow Broadbill – fruit (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Bulbuls
Ochraceous Bulbul – fruit (Ong 2008)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Red-whiskered Bulbul – fruit (O’Neill 2013)
Spectacled Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Striped-throated Bulbul – fruit (Ong 2008)
Fairy-bluebirds
Asian Fairy-bluebird – fruit (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Green-pigeons
Little Green-pigeon – fruit (Robinson 1927; Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – nesting (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Wee 2012b), fruit (Robinson 1927)
Hill-mynas
Common Hill-myna – friuit (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Hornbills
Great Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008; Waschkies 2009a)
Imperial-pigeons
Pied Imperial-pigeon – fruit (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Orioles
Dark-throated Oriole – fruit (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Pond-herons
Chinese Pond-heron – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Starlings
Philippine Glossy Starling – fruit (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Thrushes
Siberian Thrush – fruit (O’Neill 2011)

6. Ficus altissima
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

7. Ficus auriculata (Roxburgh’s fig)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Cremades & Lim 2012; Tan, T.S. 2006)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-belllied Flowerpecker – fruit (E.M. Khng pers. comm.)

8. Ficus benjamina (waringin, weeping fig)
Barbets
Blue-eared Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014)
Coppersmith Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Gold-whiskered Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Lineated Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010 ; Yong 2006)
Red-crowned Barbet – fruit (Wee, J. et al. 2008)
Yellow-crowned Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Bee-eaters
Blue-throated Bee-eater – insect (Yong 2006)
Bulbuls
Ashy Bulbul – fruit (Subaraj 2006)
Black-crested Bulbul – fruit (Yong 2006)
Black-headed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Cream-vented Bulbul – fruit (Yong 2006)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Yong 2006)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010; Bucknill & Chasen 1990; Redzian & Chua 2009; Wee & Chan, M. 2006), nest-material (leaves) (Wee 2006n)
Doves
Emerald Dove – ?fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Zebra Dove – ?fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Drongos
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo – insect (Yong 2006)
Fairy-bluebirds
Asian Fairy-bluebird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014; Yong 2006)
Flowerpeckers
Plain Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Thick-billed Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Flycatchers
Asian Paradise Flycatcher – insect (Yong 2006)
Blue-and-white Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014)
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher – insect (Wee & Chan, M. 2006; Yong 2006)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Thick-billed Green-pigeon – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013; G. 2009a; Yong 2006)
Yellow-vented Green-pigeon – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013 )
Hill-mynas
Common Hill-myna – fruit (Yong 2006)
Hornbills
Great Hornbill – fruit (Yong 2006)
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (G. & Lumb 2010)
Rhinoceros Hornbill – fruit (Yong 2006)
Ioras
Common Iora – insect (Amar-Singh 2010)
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird – fruit (Yong 2006)
Greater Green Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011, Yong 2006)
Lesser Green Leafbird – fruit (Yong 2006)
Mynas
Common Myna – ?fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Javan Myna – fruit (Wee & Chan, M. 2006; Yong 2006)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010; G 2009b; Yong 2006)
Rock-thrushes
Blue Rock-thrush – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Shrikes
Tiger Shrike – insect (Subaraj 2006)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Wee & Chan, M. 2006; Yong 2006)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – fruit (Subaraj 2006)
Crimson Sunbird – insect (Subaraj 2006)
Tailorbirds
Dark-necked Tailorbird – insect (Subaraj 2006)
Trillers
Pied Triller – insect (Amar-Singh 2010)
Warblers
Arctic Warbler – insect (Subaraj 2006)
Eastern Crowned Warbler – insect (Yong 2006)

9. Ficus benjamina ‘Variegated White’ (variegated waringin)
Barbet
Brown Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2015)
Flowerpeckers
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker – (Amar-Singh 2017)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nesting (Kwek 2011)

10. Ficus celebensis
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Hails & Jarvis 1987)

11. Ficus consociata (brown-scurfy fig)
Barbets
Blue-eared Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012, q)
Gold-whiskered Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012)
Flowerpeckers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012)
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012)
Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker – fruit (Tan, J. 2008)

12. Ficus fistulosa (common yellow-stem fig)
Green-Pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Hornbills
Great Hornbill – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Scops-owls
Oriental Scops-owl – roost (Yeo 2012)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)

13. Ficus grossularioides (white-leafed fig)
Babblers
Short-tailed Babbler – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Red-crowned Barbet – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Bluebirds
Asian Fairy Bluebird – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Bulbuls
Olive-winged Bulbul – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Crows
House Crow – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Mynas
White-vented Myna – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit – Peh & Chong (2003, 2007)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Thrushes
Eyebrowed Thrush – fruit (Peh & Chong 2003, 2007)

14. Ficus kerkhovenii
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Tsang et al. 2007)

15. Ficus kurzii
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

16. Ficus microcarpa (Malayan banyan)
Fairy-bluebirds
Asian Fairy-bluebird – fruit (Leong & D’Rozario 2012)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied – fruit (Leong & D’Rozario 2012)
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Leong & D’Rozario 2012)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Leong & D’Rozario 2012)

17. Ficus religiosa (bodh, peepul)
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet – insect (Tsang 2007); fruit (Tan & Wee, J. 2009)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Redzian & Chua 2009)
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher – insect (Tsang 2007)
Dark-sided Flycatcher – insect (Tsang 2007)
Mugimaki Flycatcher – insect (Tsang 2007)
Forktails
Slaty-backed Forktail – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Tsang 2007)
Paradise-flycatchers
Asian Paradise-flycatcher – insect (Tsang 2007)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Tsang 2007)
Warblers
Arctic Warbler – insect (Tsang 2007)

18. Ficus superba
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Cremades & Lim 2012)

19. Ficus villosa
Barbets
Blue-eared Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010w)
Brown Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Red-throated Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Bulbuls
Hairy-backed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010w)
Scaly-Breasted Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Flycatcher
Crimson-breasted Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010w)
Yellow-breasted Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Yellow-vented Flycatcher – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010, 2014)
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie Robin – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)

20. Ficus virens (grey fig)
Pigeons
Thick-billed Pigeon – fruit (Chow & Ng, A. 2012)

21. Morus alba (white mulberry)
Hornbills
Oriental Peed Hornbill – fruit (T.S. Tan pers. comm.)

22. Streblus elongates (tampinis)
Munias
White-headed Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)

MORINGACEAE
1. Moringa pterygosperma (drumstick)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Lam 2012; Wee 2012)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbills – fruit (Tan, T.S. 2010)
Ioras
Common Iora – flower (Redzlan 2009)

MYRISTICACEAE
1. Gymnacranthera sp.
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)

2. Horsfieldia sp.
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nesting (Wee 2006)

3. Knema sp.
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)

4. Knema elegans
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

5. Knema globularia
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Cremades & Lim 2012)

6. Myristica sp. (nutmeg)
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)
Wrinkled Hornbill – fruit (Chang 2009)

l-r: Callistemon sp. flowers, Psidium guajava fruit and Syzygium grande flowers
l-r: Callistemon sp. flowers, Psidium guajava fruit and Syzygium grande flowers

MYRTACEAE
1. Baeckia sp.
Bullfinches
Brown Bullfinch – fruit (Robinson 1928)

2. Callistemon sp. (bottlebrush)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nectar Amar-Singh 2011h; Tsang 2006)
Flowerpeckers
Fire-Breasted Flowerpecker – nectar (Lim, A. 2008)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – nest-material (Sun 2013b)
Ioras
Common Iora – insect (Tsang & Wee, J. 2006)
Laughingthrushes
Chestnut-crowned Laughingthrush – nectar (Ong 2008)
Leafbirds
Orange-bellied Leafbird – nectar (Lim, A. 2008b; ONg 2008; Tan, E. 2008)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – nectar (Sun 2013b)
Sibias
Long-tailed Sibia – nectar (Ong 2008)
Spiderhunters
Streaked Spiderhunter – nectar (Lim, A. 2008)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2009)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Purple-throated Sunbird: nectar (Tsang & Wee, J. 2006)
Weavers
Baya Weaver – nectar (Amar-Singh 2015)
White-eyes
Everett’s White-eye – nectar (Amar-Singh 2015)

3. Callistemon lanceolatus (bottlebrush)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Spectacled Spiderhunter – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Sunbirds
Eastern Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)

4. Callistemon rigidus (bottlebrush)
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye – nest-material (leaves) (Wee et al 2007); nesting (Lau, Y. 2007; Lau, Y & Tsang 2006)

5. Cleistocalyx nervosum
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit/nesting (Poonswad 2012)

6. Eucalyptus sp. (gum tree)
Malkohas
Chestnut-Bellied Malkoha – nesting (Amar-Singh 2009)
Minlas
Blue-winged Minla – nectar (Amar-Singh 2013)
Sibias
Long-tailed Sibia – nectar (Amar-Singh 2013)
White-eyes
Everett’s White-eye – nectar (Amar-Singh 2010)
Oriental White-eye – nectar (Teo, S. 2012)

7. Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)
Bulbul
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nesting (YC Wee 2015)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nesting-material (Wee 2013)

8. Leptospermun sp.
Bullfinches
Brown Bullfinch – fruit (Robinson 1928)
Herons
Heron – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)

9. Melaleuca sp.
Herons
Great-billed Heron – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)

10. Melaleuca cajuputi
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Sun 2013; Teo, S. 2012)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Teo, S. 2012)

11. Psidium guajava (guava)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Goh, J.H. 2012)
Flowerpeckers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – fruit (a href=”Goh, J.H. 2012b; Lam, C.S. 2007; Pooi 2008)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Wee, J. 2007; Wee, J. & Tan, T.S. 2010)

12. Rhodamnia cinerea (silver back tree)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)

13. Syzygium sp. (jambu)
Bulbuls
Cream-vented Bulbul – fruit (Lim, P.B. 2009)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nectar (Moo 2008)
Doves
Common Dove – nectar (Moo 2008)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – fruit (Goh, J.H. 2012b)
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)
Munias
Munia – nest-material (Wee 2008c; Wee & Tan, T.S. 2007)
Mynas
Javan Myna – nectar (Moo 2008)
Orioles
Black-Napes Oriole – nectar (Moo 2008)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – (Amar-Singh 2016)
Sunbirds
Olive-Backed Sunbird – nectar (Moo 2008)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starlings – nectar (Moo 2008)
Purple-backed Starling – nectar (Moo 2008)

14. Syzygium aqueum (water apple)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Cremades & Lim 2012)
Munias
Munia – nest (Tan, T.S. & Wee 2008; Wee 2008c; Wee 2008d)
Orioles
Black-Napes Oriole – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)

15. Syzygium cumini (jiwat, salam)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Corlette & Ko 1995; Wee 2006)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – flower (Lena 2014)
Pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (TP Neo)

16. Syzygium grande (sea apple)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – nectar (Subaraj 2005)
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nectar (Subaraj 2005)
Flycatchers)
Asian Brown Flycatcher – insect-flower (Subaraj 2005)
Fruit-doves
Jambu Fruit-dove – fruit (Chan, Y.M. & Chan, M. 2008)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – leaf (Sun 2011)
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – leaf (Sun 2011)
Leafbirds
Golden-fronted Leafbird – nectar (Subaraj 2005)
Greater Green Leafbird – nectar (Subaraj 2005)
Lorys
Red Lory – fruit (Wee, J. et al 2006)
Mynas
Javan Mynas – roost (Wu & Wee 2005; Sodhi & Sharp 2006)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Sun 2011)
Spiderhunters
Thick-billed Spiderhunter – ? (Subaraj 2005)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starlings – roost (Wu & Wee 2005)
Purple-backed Starling – roost Wu & Wee 2005)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Subaraj 2005)

17. Syzygium malaccense (jambu bol)
Barbets
Blue-eared Barbet – fruit (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Bulbuls
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Flowerpeckers
Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker – fruit (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Ng, A. 2007)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Bucknill & Chasen 1990; Hails & Jarvis 1987)

18. Syzygium polyanthum (salam)
Barbets
Red-crowned Barbets – fruit (Chan, Y.M. et al 2006)
Bulbuls
Cream-vented Bulbul – fruit (Lim, P.B. 2009; Subaraj 2012)
Olive-winged Bulbul – fruit (Subaraj 2012)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Subaraj 2012)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nectar (Teo, S. 2012)
Drongos
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo – insect (Subaraj 2012)
Fairy-bluebirds
Asian Fairy-bluebird – fruit (Subaraj 2012)
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher – insect (Subaraj 2012)
Fruit-doves
Jambu Fruit-dove – fruit (Chan, Y.M. & Chan, M. 2008)
Green-pigeons
Orange-breasted Green-pigeon – fruit (Cheah & Low 2008)
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (nectar (Teo, S. 2012; Wee 2010); )
Koels
Asian Koel – nectar (Teo, S. 2012)
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird – fruit (Subaraj 2012)
Lorys
Violet-necked Lory – nectar (Wee, J. et al 2006)
Starlings
Purple-backed Staling – fruit (Teo, K. & Tsang 2015)
Sunbirds
Copper-throated sunbird – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Warblers
Arctic Warbler – insect (Subaraj 2012)
Yellow-browed Warbler – insect (Subaraj 2012)

19. Syzygium samarangense (water jambu)
Weavers
Baya Weaver – nectar (Amar-Singh 2015)

20. Xanthostemon chrysanthus (golden penda)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nectar (Amar-Singh & Wee 2011)
Red-whiskered Bulbul – nectar (YC Wee 2015)
Doves
Zebra Dove – nesting (Wee 2005)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – nectar (Amar-Singh & Wee 2011)
Lorikeets
Rainbow Lorikeet – nectar (Amar-Singh & Wee 2011)
Mynas
Javan Myna – nectar (Amar-Singh & Wee 2011); nest-material (Subaraj & Wee 2006)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh & Wee 2011; Chow 2012)

NYCTAGINACEAE
1. Bougainvillea spp. (bougainvillea)
Doves
Spotted Dove – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – forage (Wee 2006)
Crimson Sunbird – forage (Wee 2006e)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2012)
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye – forage (Wee 2006)

OLEACEAE
1. Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (Wee 2006)

2. Olea brachiata (sea olive)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (D’Rozario & Wee, J. 2010)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (D’Rozario & Wee, J. 2010)

ONAGRACEAE
1. Fuchsia hybrida (fuchsia)

Sunbirds
Black-throated Sunbird – nectar (AmarSingh 2009); insect/nectar (Robinson 1928)

OXALIDACEAE
1. Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbing)
Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul – nesting (Wee, 2015)

2. Averrhoa carambola (starfruit)
Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul – flower-bud (Wee 2007; (Daisy O’Neill)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – anting/flower-bud/nesting (Wee 2008i); nesting (Wee, 2008)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Wee 2007; Wee 2007)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Daisy O’Neill)
Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker – fruit (Daisy O’Neill)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Johnny Wee 2015)
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird – fruit (Daisy O’Neill)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – seed (Y.C. Chuah pers. comm.)
Parrots
Blue-rumped Parrot – seed (Ong et al. 2013)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – insect (“Wee 2007); nesting (Wee 2008)

PASSIFLORACEAE
1. Passiflora coccinea (red passion flower)

Spiderhunters
Spectacled Spiderhunter – nectar (Lim, A. 2008)

2. Passiflora laurifolia (passion fruit)
Corellas

Tanimbar Corella – fruit (Tan, D.J.X. 2012)

3. Passiflora suberosa (corky passion flower)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbirds – forage (Sun 2013)

PHYTOLACCACEAE
1. Rivina humilis (pigeonberry, bloodberry)

Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)

PIPERACEAE
1. Piper sp.

Bulbuls
Crean-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Amar=Singh 2012)
Spectacled Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012)

2. Piper aduncum (matico)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh & Wells 2010)

RHAMNACEAE
1. Zizyphus mauritiana (ber, Indian plum)

Parakeets
Rose-ringed Parakeet – fruit (Lim, S.T. 2012)

RHIZOPHORACEAE
1. Bruguiera cylindrical (bakau putih)

Herons
Little Heron – nesting (Wee, J. 2012)

2. Rhizophora sp.
Egrets

Great Egret – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Herons
Grey Heron – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)

RUBIACEAE
1. Borreria sp.
Doves

Spotted Dove – nest-material (Spittle 1949)

2. Canthium sp.
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)

3. Canthium glabrum
Barbets
Red-crowned Barbet – fruit (CN Thong 2016)

4. Ixora sp.
Sunbirds

Copper-throated Sunbird – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Sun 2012)

5. Ixora javanica (ixora)
Tree-sparrows

Eurasian Tree Sparrow – insect (Wee 2009)

6. Morinda citrifolia (noni)
Barbets

Lineated Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011m; Wee 2006, Wee 2007)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014q; T.S. Tan pers. comm.)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011; Wee 2007b)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Wee 2006f, 2007)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – leaf-bath (Wee 2008)
Crimson Sunbird – leaf-bath (Wee 2006, l)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Chow 2012)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – leaf-bath (Wee 2007)

7. Morinda elliptica (black morinda)
Barbets

Gold-whiskered Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Tsang 2009)
Sunbirds
Purple-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2014)

8. Myrmecodia ?tuberosa
Flowerpecker
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Teo, S. 2012)

9. Oldenlandia sp.
Doves

Zebra Dove – nest-material (Spittle 1949)
Pipits
Paddyfield Pipit – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Prinias
Yellow-bellied Prinia – nest-material (stem) (Spittle 1949)

RUTACEAE
1. Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime)
Flowerpecker
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nest-material (Amar-Singh 2009, 2012)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2014)

2. Citrus medica (citron)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – nesting (Chasen 1939)

3. Murraya koenigii (curry-leaf tree)
Bulbuld
Yellow-vented Bulbul – leaf-bath (Wee 2007); fruit (Teo & K, 2013, 2015)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – nesting (Wee 2011)
Hornbills
Orirntal Pied Hornbill – fruit (Johnny Wee 2017; ( Suthagar )
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Koh, S. 2012)

SAPINDACEAE
1. Dimocarpus longan (longan)
Owls
Barn Owl – roost (Chew 2005)

2. Harpullia ramniflora (Cape York tulipwood, Claudie tulipwood)
Bulbuls

Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Mei Hwang 2017)
Red-whiskered Bulbul – fruit (Mei Hwang 2017)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Jackie Ong 2017)

3. Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan)
Broadbills
Black-and-red Broadbill – nesting (O’Neill 2012)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (D’Rozario & Wee, J. 2010; Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback – fruit (Wee, J. 2014, c)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010; O’Neill 2012; (Johnny Wee 2015)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Ng, M. 2009; Tan, T.S. 2006; Wee, J. & Tan, T.S. 2010), nesting (Cremades & Lim 2012)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (D’Rozario & Wee, J. 2010; Jackie Ong)
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010a, 2013q)
Lorikeets
Rainbow Lorikeet – fruit (Wee, J. 2012)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Johnny Wee 2015)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (D’Rozario & Wee, J. 2010; (Johnny Wee 2015)
Parakeets
Alexandrine Parkeet – seed (Wee, J. 2013)
Red-breasted Parakeet – fruit (Johnny Wee 2015)
Spiderhunters
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – leaf (Wee, J. & Wee, 2014; (Johnny Wee 2015)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – fruit/juice (O’Neill 2012b; Wee, J. 2012)

4. Nephelium ramboutan-ake (pulasan)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Lee, C. 2009)

5. Pometia pinnata (kasai daun besar)
Woodpeckers

Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker – insect (Chong, S. 2010)

SAPOTACEAE
1. Manilkara zapota

Bulbuls
Black-crested Bulbul – fruit (Bouranasompop & DeCandido 2012)
Stripe-throated Bulbul – fruit (Bouranasompop & DeCandido 2012))
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – fruit (Goh, J. H. 2012).
Vernal Hanging-parrot – fruit (Bouranasompop & DeCandido 2012)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Cremades & Lim 2012)

2. Mimusops elengi (bunga tanjong)
Bulbuls

Yellow-vented Bulbul – roost (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Sunbirds
Plain Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2013)

3. Pouteria obovata = Planchonella obovate (sea gutta)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Teo, S. 2012)

4. Synsepalum dulcificum miracle fruit, miraculous berry, flavour fruit)
Bulbul
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (YC Wee 2017)

SCROPHULARIACEAE
1. Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)

Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul – nest-material (stem) (Wee 2015)
Doves
Spotted Dove – nest-material (stem) (Wee 201a)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Sun 2012; Tsang 2010)

SOLANACEAE
1. Brugmansia x candida (angel’s trumpet)

Spiderhunters
Streaked Spiderhunter – nectar (Chow 2010)

2. Capsicum annuum (chilly)
Bulbuls
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Banwell & Sun 2009)

3. Solanum sp. (wild brinjal)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Choo, T.J. 2009)

4. Solanum melongena (brinjal)
Tailorbirds

Common Tailorbird – nesting (Spittle 1949)

STERCULIACEAE
1. Commersonia bartramia (mason bee tree)

Weavers
Baya Weaver – nest-material (fruit) (Wee & Tan, T.S. 2007)

2. Sterculia sp.
Bulbuls

Olive-winged Bulbul – fruit (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill-Research-Foundation 2008)

3. Sterculia parviflora = S. macrophyllia
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Ng, M. 2012)

THEACEAE
1. Ternstroemia sp.
Hornbills

Hornbill (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)

TILIACEAE
1. Muntingia calabura (West Indian cherry)

Barbets
Gold-whiskered Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012y)
Lineated Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Bulbuls
Olive-winged Bulbul – fruit (Wee, J. pers.comm.)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011, 2012; Lim, S.T. 2012)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011, 2012; Tsang 2006; Wee, J. 2008)
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012″, Amar-Singh 2012; Chow 2011b, 2012; Huang & Vickerman 2009; Kok, T. 2010; TM Leong 2016)
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011, 2012, ; Lim, P.B. 2009; Waschkies 2009; Amar-Singh 2011)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Tsang & Wee 2007)
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird – fruit (Yap 2012)
Greater Green Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2012; Lim, P.B. 2009)
Pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – (Amar-Singh 2016)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)

URTICACEAE
1. Pipturus argenteus (Australian mulberry)

Barbet
Coppersmith Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Bulbuls
Spectacled Bulbul – fruit (Ong 2008)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Red-whiskered Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Lee C.S. 2012)
Striped-throated Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Doves
Emerald Dovefruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Chang 2009)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Lee, C.S. 2017)
Ioras
Yellow Iora – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Chan & Chan 2008; Lee C.S. 2012)
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie-robin- fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Mynas
Common Myna – fruit (Lee, C.S. 2012)
Javan Myna – fruit (Lee, C.S. 2012 )
Jungle Myna – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Lee, C.S. 2012)
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet – fruit (Lee, C.S. 2012)
Pigeons
Pink-necked Pigeon- fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Rock-thrushes
Blue Rock-thrush – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Whistling-thrushes
Blue Whistling-thrush – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Lee, C.S. 2012)
Tit-babbler
Pin-striped Tit-babbler- fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)

2. Poikilospermum suaveolens
Barbets
Brown Barbet – nectar (O’Neill 2013)
Bulbuls
Cream-vented Bulbul – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – nectar (Goh, J.H. 2013)
Hanging-parrot
Blue-fronted Hanging-parrot – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Laughingthrushes
Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush – flower (Amar-Singh 2012 )
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird – flower (Yap 2012)
Greater Green Leafbird – nectar (Yap 2012)
Spiderhunters
Streaked Spiderhunter – flower (Amar-Singh 2014)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2012; (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Goh, J.H. 2013)
Van Hasselt’s Sunbird – flower (Yap 2012)
White-eyes
Everett’s White-eye – nectar/ant (Amar-Singh 2014, 2015)

VERBENACEAE
1. Callicarpa glabrifolis
Bulbuls

Black-headed Bulbul – fruit (O’Neill 2014)
Buff-vented Bulbul – fruit (O’Neill 2014)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (O’Neill 2014)
Cream-vented Bulbul – fruit (O’Neill 2014)
Olive-winged Bulbul – fruit (O’Neill 2014)
Spectacled Bulbul – fruit (O’Neill 2014)
Ioras
Common Iora – fruit (O’Neill 2014)
Munias
Dusky Munia – fruit (O’Neill 2014)

2. Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – fruit (Chow 2012f; Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Copper-throated Sunbird – nectar (Daisy O’Neill 2015)

3. Clerodendrum thomsonii (Bleeding-heart Vine)
Spiderhunters

Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2014)

4. Duranta erecta = D. repens (golden dewdrop)
Munias
Munia – nesting (Tan, T.S. & Wee 2008)
White-rumped Munia – nesting (Amar-Singh 2008)

5. Lantana camara ‘Hybrida’ (lantana)
Bulbuls

Mlountain Bulbul – fruit (amar-Singh 2015)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Red-whiskered Bulbul – fruit (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Naltavas
Large Naltava – fruit (Robinson 1928)
Sunbirds
Black-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2015)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Tsang 2012)

6. Stachytarpheta indica (snakeweed)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Tsang 2012)

7. Stachytarpheta mutabilis (snakeweed)
Couquette

Rufous-crested Couquette – nectar (Ng, S.C. 2009)
Hummingbirds
Violet-headed Hummingbird – nectar (Ng, S.C. 2009)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Lim, B.K. 2009)
Woodnymphs
Violet-crowned Woodnymph – nectar (Ng, S.C. 2009)

VITACEAE
1. Cissus hastata (white-stemmed button vine)

Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Wee 2008)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – fruit (Wee 2008)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Wee 2008)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Wee 2008 )

2. Vitis vinifera (grape)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2001)

ANGIOSPERM-MONOCOTYLEDONS
AGAVACEAE
1. Dracaena sp.

Bulbuls
Olive-winged Bulbul – nesting (Yeong & Meijer 2008)

2. Dracaena angustifolia (narrow-leaf dracaena)
Munias
White-headed Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)

3. Dracaena fragrans (dragon plant)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeons – nesting (Kok, J. 2008)

4. Dracaena reflexa (song of India)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nesting (Wee 2005)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – nesting (Wee 2005)

ALLIACEAE
1. Allium cepa (onion)

Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (outer bulb bract) (Spittle 1949)

l-r: Elaeis guineensis with fruits, Livinstona sp. and Rhopaloblaste ceramica
l-r: Elaeis guineensis with fruits, Livinstona sp. and Rhopaloblaste ceramica

ARACACEAE = PALMAE
1. Palms
Hornbills

Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Tsang 2012b)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback – forage (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Mynas
Javan Myna – nest-material (?leaf) (Wee 2015)

2. Archontophoenix alexandrae (Alexandra palm)
Bulbuls

Straw-headed Bulbul – ?fruit (Wee 2007a)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Wee 2006, 2007)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – flower (YC Wee)
Hill-mynas
Common Hill-myna – fruit (Wee 2007)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Lam, K. 2007; Wee 2007, b, YC Wee 2015)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – ?fruit (Wee 2007a)
Imperial-pigeons
Pied Imperial-pigeon – fr (YC Wee 2015)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – female-flower (“Wee 2008; YC Wee 2015)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruits (Wee 2006a; 2007; 2015)

3. Areca sp.
Palm-swifts

Asian Palm-swift – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)

4. Areca catechu (betel-nut palm)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback: forage (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Minivets
Small Minivet – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Chasen 1939; Spittle 1949)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Purple-naped Sunbird – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Weavers
Baya Weaver – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
White-rumped Munia – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)

5. Arenga engleri
Koels

Asian Koel – fruit (Corlett & Ko 1995)

6. Borassus sp. (toddy palm)
Palm-swifts

Asian Palm-swift – nest (Robinson 1928; Robinson & Chasen 1927)

7. Calamus sp. (rattan)
Babblers

Chestnut-necked Babbler – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Magpies
Black Magpie – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Peacock-pheasants
Mountain Peacock-pheasant – fruit (Robinson 1928; Robinson & Chasen 1936)

8. Carpentaria acuminata (carpentaria palm)
Hornbills

Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Tsang 2012)

9. Caryota mitis (fishtail palm)
Barbets

Lineated Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010; Ng & Machida 2014)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Cremades & Lim 2012; Leong & D’Rozario 2012)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – leaf-bath (Amar-Singh 2012)

10. Cocos nucifera (coconut palm)
Barbets

Lineated Barbet – nesting (Amar-Singh H.S.S. pers. comm.)
Bulbuls
Yellow-bellied Bulbul – nest-material (Chasen (1939)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (bark/fibres) (Spittle 1949), flower (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Dollarbirds
Dollarbirds – nesting (Cheah 2006)
Doves
Zebra Dove – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback – forage (Robinson & Chasen (1927), nesting (Spittle 1949)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Kingfishers
Collared Kingfisher – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie-robin – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)
White-headed Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Mynas
Common Myna – nesting (cavity) (Spittle 1949)
Jungle Myna – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – shoot (Bucknill & Chasen 1990)
Pipits
Paddyfield Pipit – nest-material (fibre/leaf-sheath) (Spittle 1949)
Prinias
Yellow-bellied Prinia: nest-material (fibre) – (Spittle 1949)
Spiderhunters
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2014e, y)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2011; Hails & Jarvis 1987); nest-material (fibres) (Spittle 1949); nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Amar-Singh 2011; Hails & Jarvis 1987), nest-material (fibres) (Chasen 1939; Spittle 1949)
Purple-throated Sunbird – nectar (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Swallows
House Swallows – nest-material (fibre) (Spittle 1949)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – nest-material (fibre) (Spittle 1949)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (fibre) (Spittle 1949)
Trillers
Pied Triller – nest-material (fibre) (Spittle 1949)
Weavers
Baya Weaver – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927; Tsang 2006)
Wood-owls
Spotted Wood-owl – roost (Ho, S. & Subaraj 2006)
Woodpeckers
Laced Woodpecker – nesting (Chasen 1939)

11 Cyrtostachys renda (lipstick palm)
Barbets

Coppersmith Barbet – nesting (Tang 2007)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Amar-Singh 2010; Chasen 1939)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Sun 2011)
Woodpeckers
Banded Woodpecker (=Yellownape) – forage (Amar-Singh 2012)

12. Dypsis lutescens (golden cane palm)
Flowerpeckers

Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)

13. Elaeis guineensis (oil palm)
Barbet

Brown Barbet – fruit (O’Neill 2013; Amar-Singh 2016)
Gold-whiskered Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Bulbuls
Cream-vented Bulbul – fruit (O’Neill 2013)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013; Chow 2011)
Crows
House Crow – fruit (Corlett & Wee 2011)
Large-billed Crow – fruit (Corlett & Wee 2011)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – fruit (Wee 2007g; Amar-Singh 2016)
Hornbills
Great Hornbill – fruit (Milton in Tsang 2012b)
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (Cremades & Lim 2012; Leong & D’Rozario 2012; Ng & Machida 2014)
Laughingthrushes
White-crested Laughingthrush – fruit (Chow 2011a)
Leafbirds
Lesser Green Leafbird – fruit (Amar-Singh 2016)
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie-robin – ?fruit (Chow 2011a)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Wee, J. 2013)
Jungle Myna – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – fruit (Chow, L. 2011;Wee 2007g)
Red-breasted Parakeet – fruit (Kwong 2010)
Rose-ringed Parakeet – fruit (Wee 2007)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)
Rosy Starling – feuit (Chua & Khng 2016; (Jeremiah Loei)
Weaver
Baya Weaver – fruit (Amar-Singh 2017)
Woodpeckers
Laced Woodpecker – insects (Chow 2011), fruit (O’Neill 2013)

14. Eugeissona tristis (bertram palm)
Nightjars

Large-tailed Nightjar – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)

15. Livistona sp.
Swifts

Asian Palm Swift – nesting (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Robinson & Chasen 1927; Tan, T.S. 2010)

16. Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)
Imperial-pigeon

Pied Imperial-pigeon – fruit (Chua 2008)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Wee 2006)
Palm-swifts
Asian Palm-swift – nesting (Robinson 1928)

17. Livistona jenkinsiana
Hornbills

Hornbill – fruit (Poonswad 2012)

18. Livistona rotundifolia
Koels

Asian Koel – fruit (CN Thong 2015)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (YC Wee 2016)

19. Livistona tahanensis
Koels
– fruit (CN Thong 2015)
Palm-swifts
Asian Palm-swift – nesting (Robinson 1928)

20. Oncosperma sp. (nibong)
Dollarbirds

Dollarbird – nesting (Chasen 1939; Cheah 2006)
Hornbills
Hornbill – fruit (Hornbill Research Foundation 2008)

21. Phoenix sp. (date palm)
Doves

Spotted Dove – nesting (Lee, J. 2008)

22. Ptycospermun macarthuri (MacArthur palm)
Barbets

Gold-whiskered Barbet – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Wee 2006)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – fruit (Banwell 2010; Huang 2009)
Hornbills
Asian Black Hornbill – fruit (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit Chan, Y.M. & Wee 2008; Cremades & Lim 2012; Kwong 2010; Ng 2007; Tsang et al. 2007b, 2012a; Wee, J. 2009)
Imperial-pigeons
Green Imperial-pigeon – fruit (Kwong 2014)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (Leong 2011; Wee & Subaraj 2007)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Amar-Singh 2010)
Mynas
Javan Myna – fruit (Wee 2015)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Wee 2017)
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet – fruit (Tuen 2013)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)

23. Raphis excelsa (lady palm)
Bulbuls

Yellow-vented Bulbul – nesting (Chow & Tan 2006)

24. Rattan
Broadbills

Whitehead’s Broadbill – nesting (Wee, H.H. 2009)

25. Rhopaloblaste ceramica (ceram palm)
Bulbuls

Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Wee 2006)
Crows
House crow – nesting (Wee 2006)
Large-billed Crow – fruit (Wee et al. 2011)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon – ?fruit (Wee 2006)
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot – fruit (Wee 2006)
Imperial-pigeons
Pied Imperial-pigeon – fruit (Wee 2012; YC Wee 2015)
Koels
Asian Koel – fruit (2015)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – nest-material (Subaraj & Wee 2006), fruit (Wee 2006h; 2013, 2015f), roost (Wee 2014)
Woodpeckers
Banded Woodpecker – forage (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)

ARACEAE
1. Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – leaf-bath (Amar-Singh 2012, 2013n)

2. Epipremnum pinnatum ‘Aureum’ (money plant)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Sun & Ng, A. 2013)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nesting (Goh, S.G. 2007), leaf-bath (Sun 2015)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – nesting (Amar-Singh 2012)

3. Epipremnum pinnatum (=Raphidophora korthalsii) (dragon’s tail)
Orioles

Black-necked Oriole – fruit (Wee 2007)

4. Philodendron ’Golden Emerald’
Sunbirds

Brown-throated Sunbird – leaf-bath (Sun, 2015)

BROMELIACEAE
1. Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Bulbuls

Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (Wee 2006)

CANNACEAE
1. Canna hybrids (canna)
Munias

White-headed Munia – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Sunbirds
Sunbird – nectar (Chan, M. & Wee 2007)
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Wells 2007)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Sun 2012)

CYPERACEAE
1. Fimbristylis schoenoides (fimbristylis)
Cisticolas

Zitting Cisticola – nesting (Tan, G.C. & Wee 2009)

2. Kyllinga polyphylla
Swamphens

Grey-headed Swamphen – flowering stalk (Loei 2014)

3. Pycreus polystachyos
Waterhens

White-breasted Waterhen – seed (Amar-Singh & Dinesh 2014)

MARANTHACEAE
1. Calathea lutea (prayer plant)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2016)

2. Thalia geniculata (water canna)
Bulbuls

Yellow-vented Bulbul – flower (Amar-Singh 2012l)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Liu 2010; Singh 2010)

MUSACEAE
1. Heliconia sp. (heliconia)
Sunbirds

Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Ho, J. 2011)
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Wee 2007)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Cheong, W.C. 2011; Wee 2007)

2. Heliconia pstticorum ‘Lady Di’ (heliconia)
Sunbirds

Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Sun 2011, 2012, 2013)

3. Heliconia rostrate (fishtail heliconia, hanging lobster’s claw)
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2016)

4. Musa sp. (banana)
Spiderhungters

Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Lim A. 2009; Ong 2008)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Derrick Cheong)

5. Musa acuminate (pisang kapal)
Tailorbirds

Common Tailorbird – nesting (O’Neill 2012)

6. Musa ornata (wild banana)
Spiderhunters

Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – nectar (AmarSingh 2014, Amar-Singh 2014)
Streaked Spiderhunter – nectar (Chang 2009)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Wee 2017)

7. Musa cultivar (banana)
Bulbuls

Olive-winged Bulbul – fruit (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Red-eyed Bulbul – fruit (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009, ; Wee 2006)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – fruit (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Hornbills
Asian Black Hornbill- fruit (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Oriental Pied Hornbill – fruit (T.S. Tan pers. comm.)
Laughingthrushes
White-crested Laughingthrush – fruit (Lee, V. 2006)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole – fruit (Redzlan 2008, 2009a)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – leaf-bath (Wee 2008)
Spiderhunters
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – nectar (Redzlan 2008)
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2014; Redzlan 2008), nest (Hails & Jarvis 1987; Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Long-billed Spiderhunter – nesting (Ong 2008; Strange & Wee 2008)
Spectacled Spiderhunter – nectar (Redzlan 2008b; Strange & Wee 2008)
Streaked Spiderhunter – nesting (Robinson 1928)
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter – forage (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – fruit (Daisy O’Neill 2015)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – nest-material (fibre) (Wee 2008), nesting (O’Neill 2012)
Waterhens
White-breasted Waterhen – fruit (Amar-Singh 2014)

8. Musa ‘1000 Fingers’
Spiderhunters

Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – nectar (Amar-Singh 2014, x)

NYMPHAEACEAE
1. Nymphaea sp. (waterlily)
Egrets
Great Egret – forage (Chow 2012k)
Waterhens
White-breasted Waterhen – forage (Chow 2012)

ORCHIDACEAE
1. Dendrobium cruminatum (pigeon orchid)
Munias

Scaly-breasted Munia – nesting (Banwell 2009)

2. Epiphyllum oxypetalum (keng hua)
Tailorbirds

Common Tailorbird – leaf-bath (Wee 2007)

l-r: Axonopus compressus; Cynodon dactylon; Eleusine indica; Paspalum conjugatum and Panicum sp.
l-r: Axonopus compressus; Cynodon dactylon; Eleusine indica; Paspalum conjugatum and Panicum sp.

POACEAE (GRAMINEAE)
1. Grasses
Buttonquails

Barred Buttonquail – seed (Robinson 1927)
Doves
Spottted Dove – seed (Robinson 1927), nest-material (rhizome) (Wee 2014)
Munias
White-headed Munia – seed (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Whistling-ducks
Lesser Whistling-duck – plant (Robinson & Chasem 1927, 1936), nest (Robinson & Chasen 1936)

2. Axonopus compressus (carpet grass)
Munias

Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Wee 2007; 2010; (2015)
Doves
Spotted Dove – seeds (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)

3. Bamboos
Babblers
Buff-breasted Babbler – nest-material (Robinson 1927)
Golden Babbler – nesting (Robinson 1928)
Grey-throated Babbler – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Rufous-fronted Babbler – nest-material/nesting (Robinson 1928)
Spot-necked babbler – nest-material (Chasen 1939)
Broadbills
Banded Broadbill – nest-material (leaf) (Choo, I. 2007)
Black-and-red Broadbill – nesting (Wee 2015)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (leaf) (Spittle 1949; Wee 2008), nesting (Spittle 1949)
Doves
Spotted Dove – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Zebra Dove – nesting (Robinson 1927)
Fantail
Pied Fantail – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Flycatchers
Mugimaki Flycatcher – seed (Amar-Singh 2015)
Fulvettas
Brown-cheeked Fulvetta – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Rufous-winged Fulvetta – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Munias
Munia – nest-material (Wee 2008)
White-headed Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Parrotfinches
Pin-tailed Parrotfinch – seed (Amar-Singh 2015; 2016)
Piculets
White-browed Piculet – ?forage (Chasen 1939)
Pigeons
Pale-capped Pigeon – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Pittas
Gurney’s Pitta – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Hooded Pitta – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Prinias
Yellow-bellied Prinia – nest-material (leaf) (Chasen 1939), nesting (Spittle 1949)
Scimitar-babblers
Large Scimitar-babbler – nesting (Robinson 1928)
Shamas
White-rumped Shama – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Shrikes
Long-tailed Shrike – nest-material (leaf) (Khoo 2013)
Sparrows
Java Sparrow – seed (Amar-Singh 2012)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Warblers
Yellow-bellied Warbler – nest-material (Robinson 1928)
Woodshrikes
Large Woodshrike – forage (Robinson 1928)

4. Chrysopogon aciculatus> (love grass)
Munias

Black-headed Munia – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – nest-material (Amar-Singh 2012)
Weavers
Baya weaver – fruit (Amar-Singh 2013)

5. Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)
Doves

Spotted Dove – nest-material (Spittle 1949)
Munias
Javan Munia – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Wee 2007)
Pipits
Paddyfield Pipit – nesting (Spittle 1949)
Sparrows
Jave Sparrow – stem (Amar-Singh 2016)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (stem) (Spittle 1949)

6. Digitaria sp. (crab grass)
Munias

White-headed Munia – fruit (Lim, R. et al. 2009)

7. Echinochloa colonum (jungle rice or padi burong)
Munias

Chestnut Munia – fruit (Lee, C. & Chow 2009)

8. Eleusine indica
Munias

Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Wee 2007)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (flowerng head) (Spittle 1949)

9. Eragrostis sp.
Munias

Scaly-breasted Munia – nest-material (Amar-Singh 2010l; Spittle (1959)
White-breasted Munia – nest-material (fruiting head) (Spittle 1949)
Pipits
Paddyfield Pipit – nest-material (fruiting head) (Spittle 1949)
Prinias
Yellow-bellied Prinia – nest-material (fruiting-head)/nesting (Spittle 1949)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nest-material (fruit) (Spittle 1949)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (fruiting head) (Spittle 1949)

10. Gigantochloa scortechinii (giant bamboo)
Parrotfinches

Pin-tailed Parrotfinch – fruit (Amar-Singh 2009)

11. Imperata cylindrica (lalang)
Bulbuls

Black-vented Bulbul – nest-material (leaf) (Chasen 1939)
Yellow-vented Bulbul – nest-material (leaf/fruit) (Spittle 1949)
Buttonquails
Barred Buttonquail – nest (Robinson 1927; Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Cisticolas
Zitting Cisticola – nest-material (plant) (Amar-Singh 2010; Chasen 1939), nest-material (leaf/fruit) (Spittle 1949), nesting (Chasen 1939)
Coucals
Lesser Coucal – nesting/nest-material (leaf) (Spittle 1949)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker – nest-material (fruit) (Chasen 1939)
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker – nest-material (fruit) (Chasen 1939; Hails & Jarvis 1987).
Munias
Munia – nest-material (Wee 2008)
Chestnut Munia – nesting (Chasen 1939)
Scaly-breasted Munia – nest-material (fruit, leaf) (Amar-Singh 2010; Spittle 1949)
White-breasted Munia – nest-material (leaf) (Spittle 1949)
Pipits
Paddyfield Pipit – nest-material/nesting (Spittle 1949)
Prinias
Yellow-bellied Prinia – nesting/nest-material (leaf) (Chasen 1939), nesting/nest-material (leaf/fruit) (Spittle 1949)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nesting/nest-material (fruit) (Spittle 1949), nest-material (fruit) (Chasen 1939; Hails & Jarvis 1987)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nest-material (fruit) (Spittle 1949; Wee 2007)
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling – nest-material (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird – nest-material (fruit) (Spittle 1949; Wee 2008)
Dark-necked Tailorbird – nest-material (fruit) (Lin 2008)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (leaf/fruit) (Spittle 1949)
Weavers
Baya Weaver – nest-material (fruit) (Wee 2008)

12. Ischaemum sp. (centipede grass)
Munias

Chestnut Munia – fruit (Chong, W. 2009)

13. Ischaemum muticum (rumput tembaga jantan)
Doves

Spotted Dove – nest-material (Spittle 1949)
Pipits
Paddyfield Pipit – nesting (Spittle 1949)

14. Ischaemum timorense (rumput sarang buaya)
Cisticolas

Zitting Cisticola – nest-material (leaf) (Spittle 1949)

15. Oryza sativa (padi)
Doves

Spotted Dove – rice (Lim, S.T. 2012)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill – rice (Mei 2012)
Munias
White-headed Munia – seed (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
White-rumped Munia – fruit (Lim, R. et al. 2009)
Mynas
Common Myna – rice (Lim, S.T. 2012)
Parakeets
Red-breasted parakeet – seed (Chasen 1939)
Pigeons
Rock Pigeon – rice (Mei 2012)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – rice (Lim, S.T. 2012)
Watercocks
Watercock – nesting/young plant (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Waterhens
White-breasted Waterhen – seed (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Weavers
African Golden-backed Weaver – rice (Lim, S.T. 2012)
Baya Weavers – rice (Lim, S.T. 2012)
Whistling Ducks
Lesser Whistling Duck – plant (Robinson & Chasen (1936)

16. Ottochloa nodosa (slender panic grass)
Cisticolas

Zitting Cisticola – nest-material (fruiting head) (Spittle 1949)

17. Panicum sp. (panic grass)
Munias

Chestnut Munia – fruit (Lee, C. & Chow 2009)
Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Wee 2007)

18. Panicum humidorum
Munias

Munia – nest-material (Wee 2008)

19. Panicum maximum (Guinea grass)
Munias

White-headed Munia – fruit (Banwell 2009)
Weavers
Baya Weaver – nest-material (Wee 2006k; Wee & Tan, T.S. 2007)

20. Panicum repens (creeping panic grass)
Munias
Munia – nest-material (Wee 2008)

21. Paspalum conjugatum (goose grass)
Munias

Munia – nest-material (Wee 2008)
Black-headed Munia – fruit (Wells 2007)
Chestnut Munia – fruit (Lee, C. 2009)
White-headed Munia – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011; Spittle 1949)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (fruiting head) (Spittle 1949)

22. Paspalum scrobiculatum (kodo grass)
Munias

Chestnut Munia – fruit (Lee, C. 2009)
Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Wee 2007)

23. Pennisetum sp. (pennisetum)
Munias

Chestnut Munia – fruit (Lee, C. 2009)
Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Lim, R. 2009)
White-headed Munia – fruit (Chow 2012)

24. Pennisetum polystachion (feathery pennisetum)
Baya Weaver
– fruit (Seow 2009; Subaraj & Leong 2013)

25. Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, napier grass)
Coucals

Greater Coucal – nest/nest-material (Robinson & Chasen 1927)
Munias
Munia – nest-material (Wee 2008)
Black-headed Munia – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Amar-Singh 2010)
White-headed Munia – fruit (Amar-Singh 2011)
Weavers
Baya weaver – fruit (Seow 2009)

26. Pennisetum setaceum ‘Rubrum’ (purple fountain grass)
Munias

Scaly-breasted Munia – seed (Chow 2013)

27. Sporobolus sp.
Cisticolas

Zitting Cisticola – nest-material (Spittle 1949)
Doves
Spotted Dove – seed (L.K. Wang pers. comm.)
Zebra Dove – seed (L.K. Wang pers. comm.)
Tree-sparrows
Eurasian Tree-sparrow – nest-material (fruiting head) (Spittle 1949)

28. Thysanolaena latifolia (tiger grass)
Munias

Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Lim, R. et al. 2009)

29. Urochloa subquadripara (lesser bracharia)
Munias

Chestnut Munia – fruit (Chong, W. 2909)
Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (Lim, R. et al. 2009)

30. Zoysia matrelle
Doves

Spotted Dove – seed (Y.C. Wee pers. comm.)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia – fruit (YC Wee 2015)

PANDANACEAE
1. Pandanus sp. (pandan)
Cuckoo-doves

Barred Cuckoo-dove – nesting (Robinson 1928)
Imperial-pigeons
Mountain Imperial-pigeon – nesting (Robinson & Chasen 1936)
Woodpeckers
Bay Woodpecker – forage (Robinson 1928)

TYPHACEAE
1. Typha angustifolia (cat’s tail, lesser bulrush)
Flowerpeckers

Scarlet-backed Flowerpeckers – nest-material (Chan, Y.M & Wee 2007; Amar-Singh 2016)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird – nest-material (Wee 2007)
Swifts
Palm Swift – nest-material (Tan, T.S. 2010)

ZINGIBERACEAE
1. Costus speciosus (crepe ginger)
Doves

Spotted Dove – seed (Chow 2013)

2. Costus spicatus
Spiderhunters

Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Chang 2009)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Ho, J. 2011)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Lim, S.T. 2013)

3. Costus woodsonii (scarlet spiral flag)
Spiderhunters

Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Chang 2009)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird – nectar (Ho, J. 2011)
Olive-backed Sunbird – nectar (Lim, S.T. 2013)

4. Etlingera elatior (torch ginger, torch ginger)
Bulbuls

Yellow-vented Bulbul – leaf-bath (Wee 2007)
Spiderhunters
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter – nectar (Ong 2008)
Little Spiderhunter – nectar (Chong, S. 2009b; Liu 2009)
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter – nectar (Ong 2008)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird – nectar (Wee 2009)

YC Wee
Singapore
1st October 2017

References that have no links, i.e. those published in books, journals, etc.

Amar-Singh, H. S. S., 2013. Frugivory by spiderhunter Arachnothera species in Peninsular Malaysia. BirdingAsia 20: 76-81.

Bucknill, J.A.S. & F.N. Chasen (1990). Birds of Singapore and South-east Asia. Graham Brash, Singapore. 247 pp.

Chasen, F. N., 1939. The birds of the Malay Peninsular. Vol. IV: The birds of the low-country jungle and scrub. H.F. & G. Whiterby, London. 487 pp.

Chiu, S. C., 2005. Observations on the breeding ecology of oriental honey buzzard Pernia ptilorhynchus torquatus in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. Paper presented at Asian Raptor Research and
Conservation Nertwork’s 4th Asian Raptor Symposium at Taiping, Perak, Malaysia in October 2005.

Corlett, R. T. & K, W. P. (1995). Frugivory by koels in Hong Kong. Memoirs of the Hong Kong Natural History Society 20, 221–222.

Corlett, R. T. & P. W. Lucas, 1989. Consumption of Campnospermum auriculatum (Anacardiaceae) fruit by vertebrates in Singapore. Malayan Nature Journal 42: 273-276.

Cremades, M. & S. C. Lim, 2012. Hornbills in the city: A conservation approach to hornbill study in Singapore. National Parks Board, Singapore. 222 pp.

Hails, Christopher & F. Jarvis, 1987. Birds of Singapore. Times Editions, Singapore. 168 pp.

Lim, F. L. K., 2011. The Singapore mistletoe story: an expose of a botanical marvel. Singapore, Carnegale Press. 116pp.

Ong Kiem Sian, 2008. A passion for birds. Draco Publishing, Singapore. 167 pp.

Peh, Kelvin S-H. & F. L. Chong, 2003. Seed dispersal agents of two Ficus species in a disturbed tropical forest. Ornithol. Sci. 2:119-125.

Poonswad, P. (2012). Hornbills: A Thai Heritage – A World Heritage. Thailand Hornbill Project, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok. 211 pp.

Robinson, H. C., 1927. The birds of the Malay Peninsula, Vol. 1. The commoner birds. H. F. & G. Witherby, London. 329 pp.

Robinson, H. C., 1928. The birds of the Malay Peninsular. Vol. II: The birds of the hill stations. H.F. & G. Whiterby, London. 310 pp.

Robinson, H. C. & F. N. Chasen (1936). The birds of the Malay Peninsular. Vol. III: Sporting birds; birds of the seashore and estuaries. H.F. & G. Whiterby, London. 264 pp.

Sodhi, N. S. & I. Sharp, 2006. Winged invaders: Pest birds in the Asia Pacific. SNP Reference, Singapore. 184 pp.

Spittle, R.J. (1949). Nesting habits of some Singapore birds. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum 21:184-204.

Wee, Y. C. & L. K. Wang, 2008. Breeding behaviour of the zebra dove, Geopelia striata (Linnaeus, 1766). Nature in Singapore 1: 75-80.

Wells, D.R., 1999. The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsular. Vol. I, Non-passerines. Academic Press, London. 648 pp.

Wells, D.R., 2007. The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsular. Vol. II, Passerines. Christopher Helm, London. 800 pp.

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