The Complete Plant-Bird Relationship – version 1.0

04 Jan 2013   in Feeding-invertebrates, Feeding-plants, Nesting, Reports, Roosting 2 Comments »
Contributed by YC Wee

This is the complete list of Plant-Bird Relationship posted in the Bird Ecology Study Group’s website since 2005. We have included mainly plants found in Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand with a few exceptions from India. A very few items have come from published books, but these are again exceptions. This list has been compiled from the 15 separate posts published earlier in this website. The non-flowering plants (algae, lichens, mosses and liverworts and ferns) head the list, followed by the Seed Plants according to their families arranged in alphabetical order. Under each plant are listed the different groups of birds according to their common names following Robson (2008) as follows:

1. Common name of bird.
2. Whether for food (nectar, fruit, leaf…), to forage for insects, to roost, to collect nesting material or to nest.
3. Author of the post.
4. Date posted in the website.
5. Habitat if in Singapore (BTNR = Bukit Timah Nature Reserve), otherwise country.
6. Link to the post on the website. In the few entries quoted from elsewhere, the author/s and date of the publication are only given. The references are listed below under References.


[l-r: Spirogyra sp., lichen and Pyrrosia piloselloides.]

ALGAE
Spirogyra
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia: plant – Wells, 2007
Scaly-breasted Munia: plant_AmarSingh_211009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

LICHEN
Broadbills
Banded Broadbill: nest-material_IrfanChoo_121207_Malacca-Malaysia – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: lichen/fungi_AmarSingh_020210_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

MOSSES and LIVERWORTS
Broadbills
Banded Broadbill: nest-material_IrfanChoo_121207_Malacca-Malaysia – LINK
Gerygones
Golden-bellied Gerygone: nest-material_KwongWaiChong_190812_rural – LINK
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye: nest-material-plant_YCWee-YenLau-KCTsang_090307_urban-garden – LINK

FERNS
1. Asplenium nidus (bird’s nest fern)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nest-material-YCWee_280806_urban-garedn – LINK
Doves
Peaceful Dove: nesting_DaisyO’Neill_011208_Malaysia – LINK
Owls
Buffy Fish Owl: nest-TouJingYi_pers.comm_Malaysia
Peafowls
Indian Peafowl: nesting_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_301206_park – LINK

2. Gleichenia sp. (resam)
Rufous-tailed Tailorbird: leaf-bath_ChooTeikJu_080609_rural – LINK

3. Pyrrosia piloselloides
Broadbills
Banded Broadbill: nest-material_IrfanChoo_121207_Malaysia LINK
Dusky Broadbill: nest-material_IrfanChoo_121207_Malacca-Malaysia – LINK
Dusky Broadbill: nest-material_JonathanCheah_181009_Malaysia – LINK
Dusky Broadbill: nest-material_IrfanChoo_091009_Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nest-material_RSubaraj-YCWee_140606_roadside – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nest-material_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_270608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: forage_AmarSingh_161010_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Woodshrikes
Large Woodshrike: nest-material_DaisyO’Neill_050512_Malaysia – LINK

SEED PLANTS
Agavaceae
1. Dracaena sp.
Olive-winged Bulbul: nesting_CharleneYeong-LuciaMeijer_140908_park – LINK

2. Dracaena fragrans
Pink-necked Green Pigeons: nesting_JoyceKok_020408_urban-garden – LINK

3. Dracaena reflexa (song of India)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nesting_YCWee_100705_urban-garden – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: nesting_YCWee_061105_urban-garden – LINK

Amaranthaceae
1. Amaranthus sp.
Olive-backed Sunbird: insect-AmarSingh_300811_Malaysia – LINK

2. Celosia argentea (cockscomb)
Sparrows
Eurasian Tree Sparrow: fruit_AmySobrielo_101209_urban – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK


[l-r: Mangifera indica fruits, Annona muricata fruit and Cerbera odollam branch with fruits.]

Anacardiaceae
1. Gluta malayana (rengas)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_AngieNg_260107_roadside – LINK
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella: nesting_AngieNg_260107_roadside – LINK

2. Mangifera indica (mango)
Doves
Spotted Dove: nesting_JeremyLee_240208_urban-garden – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: fruit_SandhuChin_160510_urban-garden – LINK
Kites
Black-shouldered Kite: nesting-AmarSingh_250112_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit-CheongWenChun_140210_Malaysia – LINK
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_AmarSingh_090811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

Annonaceae
1. Annona muricata (soursop)
Oriental Pied Hornbills: fruit_TanTeoSeng_110309_Johor-Malaysia – LINK

2. Polyalthia sp.
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

Apocynaceae
1. Allamanda cathartica
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nesting_LenaChow_050808_urban-garden – LINK

2. Alstonia sp.
Barn Swallow: roost_WuEuHeng-YCWee_Nov.05_roadside – LINK

3. Cerbera odollam (pong pong)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_JWee-ChanYokeMeng-YCWee_100906_roadside – LINK
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_LimPohBee_141109_roadside – LINK

4. Tabernaemontana corymbosa (great rosebay)
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_JosephLai_290708_park – LINK

5. Thevetia neriifolia (Yellow Oleander)
Cockatoos
Goffins/Tanimbar Cockatoo: fruit_MargieHall_241108_park – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK

6. Wrightia religiosa (wild water plum)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: seed-dispersal_AngieNg_270106_urban-garden – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green Pigeon: nesting_YCWee_061105_urban-garden – LINK
Sunbirds
Sunbird: nectar_RiaTan_140311_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_SunChongHong_121212_urban-garden – LINK


[l-r: Elaeis guineensis with fruits, Livinstona sp. and Rhopaloblaste ceramica]

Aracaceae (=Palmae)
1. Archontophoenix alexandrae (Alexandra palm)
Bulbuls
Straw-headed Bulbul: ?fruit_YCWee_040107_urban-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_YCWee_180206_urban-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_YCWee_040107_urban-garden – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_RSubaraj_110107_roadside – LINK
Asian Koel: fruit_YCWee_040107_urban-garden – LINK
Asian Koel: fruit_YCWee_030207_urban-garden – LINK
Asian Koel: fruit_KelvinLam_051207_park – LINK
Mynas
Hill Mynas: fruit_YCWee_040107_urban-garden – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: ?fruit_YCWee_040107_urban-garden – LINK
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet: female-flower_YCWee_180208_urban-garden – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruits_YCWee_010106_urban-garden – LINK
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_YCWee_040107_urban-garden – LINK

2. Arenga engleri
Asian Koel: fruit_RCorlett_010106_Hongkong – LINK

3. Carpentaria acuminata (Carpentaria palm)
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_KCTsang_110112_rural – LINK

4. Caryota mitis (fishtail palm)
Barbets
Lineated Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_300310_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Horbbill: fruit_Milton_291012_LakeKenyir-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird: leaf-bath_AmarSingh_020312_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

5. Caryota urens (fishtail palm)
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK

6. Cocos nucifera (coconut)
Barbets
Lineated Barbet: nesting_AmarSingh_041112_Perak-Malaysia (dead palm, pers. comm.)
Dollarbirds
Dollarbirds: nesting_RSubaraj_211106_rural – LINK
Owls
Spotted Wood Owl: roost_HoShuping_120706_urban-garden – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_070811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_070811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Weavers
Baya Weaver: nesting_KCTsang_220506_rural – LINK

7. Cyrtostachys renda (lipstick palm)
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet: nesting_TangHungBun-180405_roadside – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_240111_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munias: nesting_AmarSingh_240510_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Woodpeckers
Banded Woodpecker (=Yellownape): forage_AmarSingh_160212_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

8. Dypsis lutescens (golden cane palm)
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_240111_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

9. Elaeis guineensis (oil palm)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_LenaChow_310811_park – LINK
Crows
House Crow: fruit_RichardCorlett_040911_India – LINK
Large-billed Crow: fruit_RichardCorlett_040911_?Singapore – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: fruit_YCWee_140307_park – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_Milton_230112_Langkawi-Malaysia – LINK
Laughingthrushes
White-crested Laughingthrush: fruit_LenaChow_310811_park – LINK
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie-robin: ?fruit_LenaChow_310811_park – LINK
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet: fruit_LenaChow_310811_park – LINK
Long-tailed Parakeets: fruit_YCWee_140307_park – LINK
Red-breasted Parakeet: fruit_KwongWaiChong_101010_urban – LINK
Rose-ringed Parakeet: fruit_YCWee_140307_park – LINK
Woodpeckers
Laced Woodpecker: insects_LenaChow_310811_park – LINK

10. Livistona chinensis (Chinese fan palm)
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_RCorlett_010106_Hongkong – LINK
Pigeons
Pied Imperial Pigeon: fruit_MarkChua_281208_park – LINK

11. Oncosperma sp. (nibong)
Dollarbirds
Dollarbirds: nesting_JonathanCheah_April-06_rural – LINK
Hornbills
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

12. Phoenix sp.
Spotted Dove: nesting_JeremyLee_240208_urban-garden – LINK

13. Ptycospermun macarthuri (MacArthur palm)
Barbets
Gold-whiskered Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_251110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_YCWee_180206_urban-garden -LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: fruit_HuangCheeTong_120509_roadside – LINK
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: fruit_HowardBanwell_200210_rural – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_KwongWaiChong_170510_urban – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_AngieNg_130307_roadside – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_ChanYokeMeng_100308_roadside – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_JWee_270109_roadside – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_LeongTziMing-VilmaD’Rozario_291012_Langkawi-Malaysia – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_RSubaraj_110107_roadside – LINK
Asian Koel: fruit_LeongTziMing_220411_rural – LINK
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia: nesting_AmarSingh_240510_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_AmarSingh_010610_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

14. Raphis excelsa (lady palm)
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nesting_RosalindTan_potted-plant – LINK

15. Rattan
Whitehead’s Broadbill: nesting_WeeHiangHer_181009_Sabah-Malaysia – LINK

16. Rhopaloblaste ceramica (ceram palm)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_YCWee_020506_urban-garden – LINK
Crows
House crow: nesting_YCWee_240106_urban-garden – LINK
Large-billed Crow: fruit_YCWee-RSubaraj-KCTsang_010311_urban-garden – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-Pigeon: ?fruit_YCWee_180206_urban-garden – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: fruit_YCWee_020506_urban-garden – LINK
Imperial-pigeons
Pied Imperial-pigeon: fruit_YCWee_211212_urban-garden – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: nest-material_YCWee_140606_urban-garden – LINK
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_YCWee_020506_urban-garden – LINK

Araceae
1. Colocasia esculenta
Common Tailorbird: leaf-bath_AmarSingh_180812_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

2. Epipremnum pinnatum Aureum (money plant)
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird: nesting_GohSiGuim_260707_urban-garden – LINK
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird: nesting_AmarSingh_150612_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

3. Epipremnum pinnatum (=Raphidophora korthalsii) (dragon’s tail)
Black-necked Oriole: fruit_YCWee_070307_urban-garden – LINK

Araliaceae
1. Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nectar_YCWee_181108_urban-garden – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: ?nectar_YCWee_181108_urban-garden – LINK
Friarbird
Helmeted Friarbird: flower_DaisyO’Neill_271112_Papua LINK
Honeyeaters
Blue-faced Honeyeaters: flower_DaisyO’Neill_121112_Queensland-Australia – LINK
Mynas
Lorikeets
Rainbow Lorikeet: flower_DaisyO’Neill_121112_Queensland-Australia – LINK
Minor
Noisy Minor: flower_DaisyO’Neill_121112_Queensland-Australia – LINK
Javan Myna: nectar_YCWee_181108_urban-garden – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: nectar_YCWee_181108_urban-garden – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_YCWee_181108_urban-garden – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_YCWee_181108_urban-garden – LINK
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye: nectar_YCWee_181108_urban-garden – LINK
Woodpeckers
Banded Woodpecker: insect_YCWee_030707_urban-garden – LINK
Banded Woodpecker: insect_YCWee_290907_urban-garden – LINK

Avicenniaceae
1. ?Avicennia sp. (api api)
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet: leaves-KwongWaiChong_170110_rural – LINK
Rose-ringed Parakeet: leaves-KwongWaiChong_170110_rural – LINK


[l-r: Spathodea campanulata, Durio zibethinus and Tillandsia usneoides]

Bignoniaceae
1. Spathodea campanulata (African tulip)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nectar_JWee_070907_urban – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_250611_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia
LINK
Crows
House Crow: roost – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006
Mynas
Javan Myna: nectar_SamsonTan-RSubaraj_050410_rural – LINK
Javan Myna: nectar_SunChongHong_230411_urban – LINK
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet: seed_FrancisYap_050811_urban – LINK
Red-breasted Parakeet: seed_MarkChua_241007_rural – LINK
Rose-ringed Parakeet: seed_LimSheauTorng_261112_park – LINK
Spiderhunters
Spectacled Spiderhunter: nectar_AdrianLim_110709_Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter: nectar_AdrianLim_110709_Malaysia – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: nectar_RichardHale_070907_urban – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Tailorbirds
Tailorbird: nest-material-seeds_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_191106_rural – LINK

2. Tabebuia rosea
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_SunChongHong_181211_urban – LINK

Bombacaceae
1. Ceiba pentandra (kapok tree)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: nest-material_YCWee_100406_park – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: nest-material (fruit-fluff)_GohJuanHui_300312_park – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit-flower_JWee_030412_park – LINK
Swifts
Palm Swift: nest-material (fruit)_TSTan_park – LINK
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird: nest-material-fruit-floss_AmarSingh_260612_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

2. Durio zibethinus (durian)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nest-material (leaf)_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_270608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Orange Bellied Flowerpecker: fruit-GohSiGuim-HengFuHai_260605 – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_JonathanCheah-YCWee_050207_Pulau-Ubin – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_Cremades & Lim, 2012
Laughingthrush
White-crested Laughingthrushe: fruit_IvanPolunin_221107_rural-garden – LINK
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird: fruit_DaisyO’Neal_040212_Malaysia – LINK
Spiderhunters
Spiderhunter: nectar_CheongLoongFah_301111_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter: nectar-DaisyO’Neill_061211_Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Plain-throated Sunbirds: fruit-GohSiGuim-HengFuHai_260605_park – LINK
Woodpeckers
Laced Woodpecker: fruit-GohSiGuim-HengFuHai_260605_park – LINK
Laced Woodpecker: fruit-JWee_040906_rural – LINK
Laced Woodpecker: fruit_DavidJXTan_280612_park – LINK
Woodshrikes
Large Woodshrike: nesting_DaisyO’Neill_050512_Malaysia – LINK

Boraginaceae
1. Carmona retusa (=Ehretia microphylla)
White-eyes
Japanese White-eye: fruit_JasonCho_260111_rural – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_250611_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK

Bromeliaceae
1. Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss)
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nest-material-YCWee280806 – LINK

Cannaceae (canna)
1. Canna hybrids
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird: nectar – Wells, 2007
Sunbird: nectar_MChan_271007_park – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_SunChongHong_121212_urban-garden – LINK

Caricaceae
1. Carica papaya (papaya)
Barbets
Gold-whiskered Barbet; fruit_RedzianARahman_171008_Malaysia – LINK
Gold-whiskered Barbet: fruit_DaisyO’Neill_240109_Malaysia – LINK
Red-throated Barbet: fruit_DaisyO’Neill_041108_Malaysia – LINK
Red-throated Barbet: fruit_DaisyO’Neill_010209_Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: seed_YCWee_260510_urban-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_250611_Perak-Malaysia
LINK
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_YCWee_291110_urban-garden – LINK
Cockatoos
Yellow-crested Cockatoo: fruit_LenaChow_270712_urban – LINK
Doves
Spotted Dove: seed_YCWee_231110_urban-garden – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_TanTeoSeng_251209_Malaysia – < LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_071108_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Koel
Asian Koel: fruit_KFYap_240108_urban – LINK
Mynas
Javan Myna: seed_YCWee_260510_urban-garden – LINK

Casuarinaceae
1. Casuarina equisetifolia (casuarina)
Herons
Grey Heron: nesting_TC_050109_rural – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_Cremades & Lim, 2012
Kites
Brahminy Kite: nestng_MarkChua_300807_rural – LINK
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia: seed – Wells, 2007
Scaly-breasted Munia: seed_LenaChow_201009_urban – LINK
Mynas
Javan Myna: young needles – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: forage-CheongWengChun_211111_Malaysia – LINK
Purple-backed Starling: needle-branch_CheongWengChun_Malaysia – LINK

Celastraceae
1. Bhesa robusta
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_AngieNg_130307_roadside – LINK

Combretaceae
1. Lumnitzera littorea (teruntum merah)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_MarcusNg_160409_rural – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_MarcusNg_160409_rural – LINK
Purple-throated Sunbird: nectar_MarcusNg_160409_rural – LINK

2. Quisqualis indica (Rangoon creeper)
Brown-throated Sunbird: insects_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

3. Terminalia catappa (sea almond)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_JHGoh_270511_rural – LINK
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_KwongWaiChing_300110_urban – LINK
Crows
House Crow: roost – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006
Parrots
Blue-naped Parrot: fruit-flower_GSSoh_180409_Sabah-Malaysia – LINK

Compositae
1. Ageratum conyzoides (white weed)
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nesting_AmarSingh_300511_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

2. Tridax procumbens (coat buttons)
Scaly-breasted Munias: fruit_AmarSingh_100511_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

Convolvulaceae
1. Ipomoea aquatica (water convolvulus)
Indian Cormorant: forage_LeongTziMing_281112_Thailand – LINK
Little Cormorant: forage_LeongTziMing_281112_Thailand – LINK

Cucurbitaceae
1. Cephalandra indica = Coccinia grandis (ivy gourd)
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK

Cupressaceae
1. Juniperus chinensis
Spotted Dove: nesting_AmarSingh_020810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

Cyperaceae
1. Fimbristylis schoenoides (fimbristylis)
Zitting Cisticola: nesting_TanGimCheong_010709_rural – LINK

Dilleniaceae
1. Dillenia suffruticosa (simpoh air)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_MarkChua_260109_rural – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: leaf-bath_JWee_050307_urban-garden – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: leaf-bath_ChooTeikJu_261208_rural – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: seed_JWee_091008_rural – LINK
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: seed_MarkChua_260109_park – LINK
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: petal_LimPohBee_281109_rural – LINK
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeets: fruiting-bud_ChanYokeMeng-April-06_rural – LINK
Long-tailed Parakeets: fruiting-bud_MikeTan_141010_rural – LINK
Red-breasted Parakeet: immature-fruit_ChooTeikJu_130209_rural – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: fruit_MarkChua_260109_rural – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: leaf-bath_JWee_050307_urban-garden – LINK
Purple-throated Sunbird: fruit_MarkChua_260109_rural – LINK
Tailorbirds
Tailorbird: nesting_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_1901106_rural – LINK
Dark-necked Tailorbird: nesting_TsenThauMing_170808_Malaysia – LINK
Tit-babblers
Striped Tit-babbler: leaf-bath_ChooTeikJu_261208_rural – LINK

Dipterocarpaceae
1. Shorea gibbosa (damar hitam gajah)
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_AngieNg_260107_roadside – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_ChanYokeMeng-MChan-KCTsang-AllanTeo_070207_roadside – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_Cremades & Lim, 2012

Elaeocarpaceae
1. Elaeocarpus sp.
Barbets
Red-crowned Barbet: fruit_ChanYokeMeng-MChan-YCWee_190706_forest – LINK
Red-crowned Barbet: fruit_ChanYokeMeng-MChan-YCWee_050706_forest – LINK


[l-r: Claoxylon indicum fruits; Macaranga gigantea inflorescence branch; Hura crepitans fruit]

Euphorbiaceae
1. Acalypha siamensis
Eurasian Tree Sparrow: fr_CheongWengChun_101112_Selangor-Malaysia – LINK

2. Claoxylon indicum (jarak kayu: above left)
Javan Myna: fruit_StevenChong_240409_urban – LINK

3. Hura crepitans (sandbox tree)
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet: nesting_AmarSingh_241209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Fantails
Pied fantail: nesting_AmarSingh_020611_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: flower_AmarSingh_130510_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

4. Macaranga spp.
Bulbuls
Olive-winged Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_010210_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

5. Macaranga bancana (common mahang)
Barbets
Brown Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_050810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Black-headed Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_140112_Malaysia – LINK
Black-headed Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_171109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Buff-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_050810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Cream-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_171109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Hairy-backed Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_171109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Red-eyed Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_141109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Spectacled Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_050810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Spectacled Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_141109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher: fruit_AmarSungh_101109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Blue-and-white Flycatcher: fruit_AmarSingh_030112_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Rufous-chested Flycatchers: fruit_AmarSingh_030112_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher: fruit_AmarSungh_101109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: fruit_AmarSingh_231211_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Ioras
Green Iora: fruit_AmarSungh_101109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Spiderhunters
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter: fruit_AmarSingh_050810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter: fruit_AmarSingh_211109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Little Spiderhunter: fruit_AmarSingh_211109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Spectacled Spiderhunter: fruit_AmarSingh_050810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter: fruit_AmarSingh_050810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Plain Sunbird: nectar-fruit_AmarSingh_061109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Plain Sunbird: fruit_AmarSingh_050810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Purple-naped Sunbitd: nectar-fruit_AmarSingh_061109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Purple-naped Sunbird: fruit_AmarSingh_050810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Purple-naped Sunbird: fruit_AmarSingh_261211_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Red-throated Sunbird: nectar-fruit_AmarSingh_061109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Ruby-cheeked Sunbird: nectar-fruit_AmarSingh_061109_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_AmarSingh_010210_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
White-eyes
Everett’s White-eye: fruit_AmarSingh_050810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

6. Macaranga heynei (blue mahang)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: fruit_MarcusNg_300709_rural – LINK
Plain Sunbird: fruit_AmarSingh_051209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

7. Macaranga gigantea (giant mahang: above left)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_CheongWengChun_151211_Selangor-Malaysia – LINK
Leafbirds
Orange-bellied Leafbird: fruit_AdrianLim_180109_Malaysia – LINK
Mynas
Myna: fruit_CheongWengChun-151211_Selangor-Malaysia – LINK
Nuthatch
Velvet-fronted Nuthatch: fruit_Adrian:im_081108_Malaysia – LINK
Starlings
Purple-backed Starlings: fruit_CheongWengChun_151211_Selangor-Malaysia – LINK
Trillers
Pied Triller: fruit_CheongWengChun_151211_Selangor-Malaysia – LINK
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye: ?fruit_CheongWengChun_151211_Selangor-Malaysia – LINK

8. Manihot esculenta (tapioca)
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_MikeKoh_110809_rural – LINK

9. Manihot glaziovii (wild tapioca)
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK


[l-r: Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Erythrina crista-galli and Albizia samam]

Fabaceae (=Leguminosae)
1. Acacia auriculiformis (acacia)
Flamebacks
Common Flameback: insect_AmarSingh_040210_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Honey-buzzards
Oriental Honey-buzzard: nesting_ChiuSeinChiong_180307_Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Treeswifts
Grey-rumped Treeswift: nesting_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_200707 – LINK
Weavers
Baya Weavers: nesting_SeowBoonEu_180809_Malaysia – LINK

2. Albizia saman (rain tree)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: leaf_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK
Crows
House Crow: roost – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006
Hornbills
Great Hornbill: roost_BrianNg-YCWee_300506_highrise-apartment – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_Cremades & Lim, 2012
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_031012_Kuching-Sarawak-Malaysia – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: leaves_CheongWengCheong_291205_Selangor-Malaysia – LINK

3. Arachis pintoi (creeping peanut plant)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: flower_AmarSingh_250611_Perak-Malaysia – LINK

4. Bauhinia x blakeana (Hongkong orchid tree)
Straw-headed Bulbul: petal-RichardHale_120810_urban-garden – LINK

5. Bauhinia kokiana
Doves
Zebra Dove: nesting_AmarSingh_110412_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Fantails
Pied Fantail: nesting_AmarSingh_02061 – LINK

6. Calliandra emarginata (powderpuff tree)
Olive-backed Sunbird: nesting_TeoGuttensohn_190707_apartment-balcony – LINK

7. Caesalpinia pulcherrima (peacock flower)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: leaf-bath_AmarSingh_020312_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_110211_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Parakeets
Rose-ringed Parakeet: fruit_GeorginaChin_280311_urban-garden – LINK
Rose-ringed Parakeet: fruit_SunChongHong-AngieNg_210510_urban – LINK
Rose-ringed Parakeet: seed_SunChongHong_260911_urban – LINK

8. Calliandra haematocephala (powderpuff)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nectar_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

9. Cassia fistula (golden shower)
Corellas
Tanimbar Coerlla: fruit_HowardBanwell_160209_roadside – LINK
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_GerardGoh_210609-roadside – LINK
Ioras
Common Iora: insect_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK
Trillers
Pied Triller: insects_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK

10. Clitoria fairchildiana
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK

11. Erythrina sp.
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: ?nectar – Wells, 1999
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK

12. Erythrina crista-galli (cockscomb tree)
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: nesting_YCWee_061105 – LINK

13. Erythrina variegata (coral tree)
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: nectar_AmarSingh_300411_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

14. Leucaena leucocephalia (leucaena, petai jawa)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_KwongWaiChing_300110_urban – LINK
Tanimbar Corella: seed_TanTeoSeng_010810_rural – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbills: ?seed_TanTeoSeng_010810_Johor-Malaysia – LINK

15. Mimosa sp.
Baya Weaver: nesting_YCWee_250207_urban – LINK

16. Paraserianthes falcataria (albizia)
Dollarbirds
Dollarbird: insect_HoHuaChew_290108_rural – LINK
Fish-eagles
Grey-headed Fish-eagle: nesting_HoHuaChew_290108_rural – LINK
White-bellied Fish-eagle: nesting_HoHuaChew_290108_rural – LINK
Flamebacks
Common Flameback: insect_HCHo_290108_rural – LINK
Hawk-eagles
Changeable Hawk-eagle: nest_YCWee-HCHo_290108_rural LINK
Hornbills
Great hornbill: nesting_YCWee_040506_woodland – LINK
Great hornbill: nesting_YCWee_180506_urban – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_Cremades & Lim, 2012
Rhinoceros hornbill: nesting_YCWee_040506_woodland – LINK
Mynas
Hill Myna: ?insect_HoHuaChew_290108_rural – LINK
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet: ?fruit_HoHuaChew_290108_rural – LINK

17. Peltophorum pterocarpum (yellow flame)
Crows
House Crow: nesting_WuEuHeng_090305_HDB-highrise – LINK
House Crow: roost – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006.
Parakeets
Red-Breasted Parakeet: insect_KwongWaiChong_170210_rural – LINK

18. Pithecellobium dulce (Madras thorn)
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet: ?fruit_AmarSingh_030811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Lineated Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_030811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_030811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Doves
Zebra Dove: ?fruit_AmarSingh_030811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: ?fruit_AmarSingh_030811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie-robin: fruit_AmarSingh_030811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Mynas
Javan Myna: fruit_RichardHale_161105_urban-garden – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_AmarSingh_030811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_AmarSingh_291111_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_AmarSingh_030811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

19. Pterocarpus indicus (angsana)
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella: nesting_MelanieVotaw-RSubaraj_030308_roadside – LINK
Crows
House Crow: roost – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006
House Crow: nesting_AngieNg_191205_urban-garden – LINK
Honey-buzzards
Oriental Honey-buzzard: nesting_ChiuSeinChiong_180307_Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_031106_roadside – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_090507_roadside – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_Cremades & Lim, 2012
Mynas
Javan Myna: roost_WangLuanKeng-YCWee_200912_roadside – LINK
Javan Myna: roost – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: roost-DaisyO’Neill_060807_Penang-Malaysia – LINK
Owls
Collared Scops Owl: nesting_FRMallick_110507-roadside – LINK
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet: nesting_ChanYekeMeng-MChan_210407_roadside – LINK
Red-breasted Parakeet: nesting_MelanieVotaw-RSubaraj_030308_roadside – LINK
Starlings
Purple-backed Starling: roost_WangLuanKeng-YCWee_200912_roadside – LINK

20. Saraca cauliflora = S. thaipingensis (yellow saraca)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-Backed Flowerpecker: fruit_JamesHeng_300108_park – LINK
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher: insect_KCTsang-GSreedharan_020309_forest – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_JamesHeng_300108_park – LINK
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_KCTsang_GSreedharan_020309_park – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_JamesHeng_300108_park – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_KCTsang_GSreedharan_020309_park – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_JamesHeng_300108_park – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_KCTsang_GSreedharan_020309_park – LINK
Purple-throated Sunbird: nectar_JamesHeng_300108_park – LINK
Purple-throated Sunbird: nectar_KCTsang_GSreedharan_020309_park – LINK

21. Tamarinda indica (tamarind)
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_GSreedharan_221011_??? – LINK
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet: fruit_LenaChow_301112_roadside – LINK

Gesneriaceae
1. Episcia cupreata ‘Acajou’
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_KCTsang_011112_urban-garden – LINK

Hypericaceae
1. Cratoxylum formosum (pink mempat)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nectar-insect-flowerbud_YCWee_110406_roadside – LINK
Crows
House Crow: nest-material-twig_YCWee_240106_roadside – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: nest-material_YCWee_061105 – LINK
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: nest-material_RSubaraj-YCWee_140606_roadside – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_YCWee_110406_roadside – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_YCWee_110406_roadside – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_YCWee_110406_roadside – LINK
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye: flower-bud_YCWee_240512_urban-garden – LINK
Oriental White-eye: nectar_YCWee_110406_roadside – LINK

Lauraceae
1. Persea americana (avocado)
Common Tailorbird: nest-material_TanTeoSeng_260108_Johor-Malaysia – LINK

2. Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree)
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK

3. Cinnamomum iners (wild cinnamon)
Barbets
Red-crowned Barbet: fruit_YCWee_050706_forest – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: nesting_GohJuanHui_300312_park – LINK
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird: leaf-bath_AmarSingh_020312_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

4. Litsea sp.
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

Leeaceae
1. Leea indica (red tree-vine)
Straw-headed Bulbul: fruit_ChanWeiLuen_151209_rural – LINK

Loganaceae
1. Fagraea crenulata (cabbage tree)
Pink-necked Green-pigeons: shelter-rain-JamesHeng_211206_park – LINK

2. Fagraea fragrans (tembusu)
Honey-buzzards
Oriental Honey-buzzard: nesting_ChiuSeinChiong_180307_Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_Cremades & Lim, 2012
Kingfishers
Collared Kingfisher: insect_YCWee-LeongTziMing_ 290606_park – LINK
Owls
Oriental Scops Owl: roost_RSubaraj_141106_park – LINK


[Dendrophthoe penatndra l-r: flowers, fruits and seedling growing on a host branch]

Loranthaceae
1. Dendrophthoe pentandra (Malayan mistletoe)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_AngieNg_270106_urban – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_YCWee_050206_urban-garden – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: nectar_JasonCho_120509_rural – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: nectar_YCWee_221007_urban-garden – LINK
Parakeets
Long-tailed Parakeet: fruit_YCWee_301010_urban-garden – LINK
Long-tailed Parakeet: fruit_YCWee_100311_urban-garden – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: fruit_YCWee_040606_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: fruit_YCWee_050206_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: fruit-AngieNg_050206_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_YCWee_221007_urban-garden – LINK

2. Macrosolen cochinchinensis (common Chinese mistletoe)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_AngieNg_050206-urban-garden – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_YCWee_050206_urban-garden – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_YCWee_260206_urban-garden – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: seed-dispersal_ChanYokeMeng_101007_urban – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: nectar_YCWee_170907_urban-garden – LINK
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird: nectar_CalvinChang_130609_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: fruit_YCWee_260206_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: fruit_YCWee_050206_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbirds: fruit_AngieNg_050206-urban-garden – LINK

3. Scurrula ferruginea
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_071211_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

4. Viscum ovalifolium
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_FrancisLim_101211_rural – LINK

Lythraceae
1. Lagerstroemia sp.
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: nest-material (bark)_AmarSingh_301209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpeckers: forage_AmarSingh_091211_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

2. Lagerstroemia speciosa (rose of India)
Red-breasted parakeet: seed_WilliamIp_260211_Park – LINK

Magnoliaceae
1. Michelia champaca (chempaka merah)
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_SunChongHong_261110_urban – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_SunChongHong_261110_urban – LINK

Malvaceae
1. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibiscus)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nesting_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_270608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_MChan_181107_urban – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_080310_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_BKLim_170109_urban – LINK

2. Malvaviscus arboreus
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_181110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

Maranthaceae
1. Thalia geniculata (water canna)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: flower_AmarSingh_290612_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_Liu Jianzhong_010110_park – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_HarpitSingh_030310_park – LINK

Melastomataceae
1. Clidemia hirta (clidemia)
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker: fruit_CalvinChang_160709_rural – LINK

2. Melastoma malabathricum (Singapore rhododendron)
Barbets

Red-crowned Barbets: fruit_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_190706_forest – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_250611_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Munias
White-rumped Munia: nesting_AmerSingh_231009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker: fruit_OngKiemSian-MortenStrange_200208_rural – LINK
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_OngKiemSian-MortenStrange_200208_Malaysia – LINK
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_Willis_101208_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_YCWee_130607_urban – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_LenaChow_220712_urban – LINK
Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker: fruit_OngKiemSian-MortenStrange_200208_rural – LINK


[l-r: Azdirachta indica fruits, Swietenia macrophylla fruits and Lansium domesticum fruits.]

Meliaceae
1. Aglaia spectabilis
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

2. Aphanamixis >polystachys (pasak lingga)
Pink-necked Green Pigeon: nesting_GloriaSeow_030706_roadside – LINK

3. Azdirachta indica (neem)
Barbets
Lineated Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_291009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Bee-eaters
Blue-tailed Bee-eater: insect_AmarSingh_301012_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Blue-throated Bee-eater: insect_AmarSingh_301012_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Chestnut-headed Bee-eater: insect_AmarSingh_301012_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_291009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_250611_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher: insects_AmarSingh_301012_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia- LINK
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher: insects_AmarSingh_301012_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: fruit_AmarSingh_291009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Ioras
Common Iora: insect_AmarSingh_301012_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_AmarSingh_291009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Mynas
Common Myna: fruit_AmarSingh_291009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_AmarSingh_291009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_AmarSingh_110911_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: insect_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: insect_AmarSingh_301012_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_AmarSingh_291009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Trillers
Pied Triller: insects_AmarSingh_301012_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK

4. Chisocheton sp.
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

5. Dysoxylon sp.
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

6. Khaya grandifolia (African mahogany)
House Crow: roost – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006

7. Lansium domesticum
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: forage_DaisyO’Neill_230512_Malaysia LINK

8. Swietenia macrophylla (West Indian mahogany)
Crows
House Crow: roost – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006
Parakeets
Red-Breasted Parakeet: seed_KCTsang_270211_ roadside – LINK
Rose-ringed Parakeet: seed_KCTsang_270211_ roadside – LINK


[Ficus elastica l-r: branch, stipule and latex]

Moraceae
1. Artocarpus integer (chempedak)
Common Flameback: fruit_JWee_180209_park – LINK

2. Ficus spp.
Barbets
Blue-eared Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_120909_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Brown Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_120909_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Gold-whiskered Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_120909_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Red-eyed Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_120909_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Spectacled Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_120909_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: nesting_YCWee_150512_urban-garden – LINK
Hornbills
Great Hornbill: fruit_IngoWaschkies_240409_Thailand – LINK
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird: fruit_AmarSingh_120909_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Thrushes
Siberian Thrush: fruit_DaisyO’Neill_190411_Malaysia – LINK

3. Ficus auriculata (Roxburgh’s fig)
Oriental Pied Hornbills: fruit_TSTan-080606_Johor-Malaysia -LINK

4. Ficus benghalensis (banyan)
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK

5. Ficus benjamina (waringin, weeping fig)
Barbats
Blue-eared Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_020712_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Coppersmith Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Gold-whiskered Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_251110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Lineated Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Lineated Barbet: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Red-crowned Barbet: fruit_JWee-ChanYokeMeng_041208_urban – LINK
Bee-eaters
Blue-throated Bee-eater: insect_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Bluebirds
Asian Fairy Bluebird: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Bulbuls
Ashy Bulbul: fruit_RSubaraj_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Black-crested Bulbul: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Black-headed Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_050310_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Cream-vented Bulbul: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Olive-winged Bulbul: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Red-eyed Bulbul: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_MChan-YCWee_071206_forest – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_RedzianARahman_080209_Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nest-material_YCWee_280806 – LINK
Doves
Emerald Dove: ?fruit_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Zebra Dove: ?fruit_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Drongos
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo: insect_YongDingLi-RSubaraj_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK 1, 2
Flycatchers
Asian Paradise Flycatcher: insect_YongDingLi-RSubaraj_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK 1, 2
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher: insect_MChan-YCWee_071206_forest – LINK
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher: insects_YongDingLi-RSubaraj_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK 1, 2
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: fruit_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Thick-billed Green-pigeon: fruit_MarkG_070809_park – LINK
Thick-billed Green-pigeon: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Hornbills
Great Hornbill: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: MarkG-KennethLumb_120210_urban/park – LINK
Rhinoceros Hornbill: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Ioras
Common Iora: insect_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Greater Green Leafbird: fruit_AmarSingh_171211_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Greater Green Leafbird: fruit_AmarSingh_171211_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Greater Green Leafbird: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Lesser Green Leafbird: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Mynas
Common Myna: ?fruit_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Hill Myna: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Javan Myna: fruit_MChan-YCWee_071206_forest – LINK
Javan Myna: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_MarkG_100909_park – LINK
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Shrikes
Tiger Shrike: insect_YongDingLi-RSubaraj_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK 1, 2
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_MChan-YCWee_071206_forest – LINK
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_YongDingLi_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: fruit_RSubaraj_071006_forest – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: insect_YongDingLi-RSubaraj_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK 1, 2
Tailorbirds
Dark-necked Tailorbird: insect_YongDingLi-RSubaraj_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK 1, 2
Thrushes
Blue Rock Thrush: fruit_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Trillers
Pied Triller: insect_AmarSingh_140810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Warblers
Arctic Warbler: insect_YongDingLi-RSubaraj_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK 1, 2
Eastern Crowned Warbler: insect_YongDingLi-RSubaraj_Oct-06_BTNR – LINK 1, 2

6. Ficus benjamina ‘Variegated White’ (variegated waringin)
Olive-backed Sunbird: nesting_JaniceKwek_170711_highrise balcony – LINK

7. Ficus consociata (brown-scurfy fig)
Barbets
Blue-eared barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_020812_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Gold-whiskered Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_150712_Ipoh-Malaysia –
LINK
Flowerpeckers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_220712_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_170712_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker: fruit_JimmyTan_300608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK

8. Ficus fistulosa (common yellow-stem fig)
Hornbills
Great Hornbill: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Owls
Oriental Scops-Owl: roost_RonYeo-AlyceAng_210212_rural – LINK
Pigeons
Pink-necked Green Pigeon: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK

9. Ficus grossularioides (white-leafed fig)
Babblers
Short-tailed Babbler: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Red-crowned Barbet: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Bluebirds
Asian Fairy Bluebird: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Bulbuls
Olive-winged Bulbul: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Crows
House Crow: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Mynas
White-vented Myna: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-0ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK
Thrushes
Eyebrowed Thrush: fruit_KelvinSHPeh-ChongFongLin_080607_forest – LINK

10. Ficus microcarpa (Malayan banyan)
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_LeongTziMing-VilmaD’Rozario_291012_Langkawi-Malaysia – LINK

11. Ficus religiosa (bodh, peepul)
Barbets
Coppersmith Barbet: insect_KCTsang_281207_park – LINK
Coppersmith Barbet: fruit_JayTan-JWee_131009_rural – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_MarkChua_080209_rural – LINK
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher: insect_KCTsang_281207_park – LINK
Dark-sided Flycatcher: insect_KCTsang_281207_park – LINK
Mugimaki Flycatcher: insect_KCTsang_281207_park – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_KCTsang-281207_park – LINK
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK
Paradise-flycatchers
Asian Paradise-flycatcher: insect_KCTsang_281207_park – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starlings fruit_KCTsang_281207_park – LINK
Warblers
Arctic Warblers: Mugimaki Flycatchers: insect_KCTsang_281207_park – LINK

12. Ficus villosa
Barbets
Blue-eared Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_111110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Brown Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_111110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Red-Throated Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_111110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Hairy-backed Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_111110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Scaly-Breasted Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_250810_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Flycatchers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_111110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_111110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_111110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

13. Ficus virens (grey fig)
Thick-billed Pigeons: fruit_LenaChow-AngieNg_101112_roadside – LINK

14. Morus sp. (mulberry)
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK

Moringaceae
1. Moringa pterygosperma (drumstick)
Cockatoos
Tanimbar Cockatoo: seed_TanTeoSeng_010810_rural – LINK
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_YCWee_310312_urban-garden – LINK
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_LamChunSee_120812_rural – LINK
Ioras
Common Iora: flower_RedzianARahman_050509_Malaysia – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbills: fruit_TanTeoSeng_010810_Johor-Malaysia – LINK

Musaceae
1. Heliconia sp. (heliconia)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_JeanHo_121211_urban-garden – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_YCWee_061107_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_YCWee_061107_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_CheongWengChun_081211_Selangor-Malaysia – LINK

2. Heliconia pstticorum ‘Lady Di’ (heliconia)
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_SunChongHong_120511_urban – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_SunChongHong_121212_urban-garden – LINK

3. Musa sp. (bananas)
Little Spiderhunter: nectar_AdrianLim_240109_Johor-Malaysia – LINK

4. Musa ornate (wild banana)
Streaked Spiderhunter: nectar-KelvinChang_240309_Malaysia – LINK

5. Musa cultivar (banana)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_211209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nest-material-YCWee_280806_urban-garden – LINK
Laughingthrushes
White-crested Laughingthrush: fruit_VictorLee_100506_rural – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_RedzlanARahman_170409_Malaysia – LINK
Black-naped Oriole: insect_RedzianARahman_230308_urban-garden – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: leaf-bath_YCWee_250208_urban-garden – LINK
Spiderhunters
Grey-breasted Spiderhunter: nectar_RedzianARahman_170708_Malaysia – LINK
Little Spiderhunter: nectar_RedzianARahman_170708_Malaysia – LINK
Long-billed Spiderhunter: nesting_OngKienSian-MortenStrange_090308_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Spectacled Spiderhunter: nectar_RedzianARahman_240608_Malaysia – LINK
Spectacled Spiderhunter: nesting_OngKienSian-MortenStrange_090308_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird: nest-material (fibre)_YCWee_180608_urban-garden – LINK
Common Tailorbird: nesting_DaisyO’Neill_100612_Malaysia – LINK

Myristicaceae
1. Gymnacranthera sp.
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

2. Horsfieldia sp.
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: nesting_YCWee_100406_park – LINK

3. Knema sp.
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

4. Myristica sp. (nutmeg)
Hornbills
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK
Wrinkled Hornbill: fruit_CalvinChang_280709_Johor-Malaysia – LINK


[l-r: Callistemon sp. flowers, Psidium guajava fruit and Syzygium grande flowers.]

Myrtaceae
1. Callistemon sp. (bottlebrush)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nectar_KCTsang_010406_urban-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nectar_AmarSingh_250611_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Fire-Breasted Flowerpecker: nectar_AdrianLim_301108_Malaysia – LINK
Ioras
Common Iora: insect_KCTsang_010406_urban-garden – LINK
Leafbirds
Orange-bellied Leafbird: nectar_AdrianLim_301108_Malaysia – LINK
Orange-bellied Leafbird: nectar_EricTan_281008_urban – LINK
Spiderhunters
Streaked Spiderhunter: nectar_AdrianLim_301108_Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Purple-throated Sunbird: nectar_JWee_010406_urban-garden – LINK

2. Callistemon rigidus (bottlebrush)
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye: nest-material-leaves_YCWee-YenLau-KCTsang_090307_urban-garden – LINK
Oriental Whit0e-eye: nesting_YenLau_260207_urban-garden – LINK
Oriental White-eye: nesting_YenLau-KCTsang_070706 – LINK

3. Eucalyptus sp. (gum tree)
Malkohas
Chestnut-Bellied Malkoha: nesting_AmarSingh_250909_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
White-eyes
Everett’s White-eye: nectar_AmarSingh_240610_Malaysia – LINK
Oriental White-eye: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK

4. Melaleuca cajuputi
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK

5. Psidium guajava (guava)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_GohJuanHui_110512_urban-garden – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_110910_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: fruit_LamChunSee_040907_urban – LINK
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: fruit_EricPooi_161108_urban-garden – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_JWee-270607_urban-garden – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_JWee-TanTeoSeng_070210_rural – LINK

6. Syzygium sp. (jambu)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nectar_RogerMoo_141208_park – LINK
Doves
Common Dove: nectar_RogerMoo_141208_park – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: fruit_GohJuanHui_110512_urban-garden – LINK
Hornbills
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK
Munias
Munia: nest-material_YCWee-TanTeoSeng_180408_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Mynas
Javan Myna: nectar_RogerMoo_141208_park – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: nectar_RogerMoo_141208_park – LINK
Sunbirds
Olive-Backed Sunbird: nectar_RogerMoo_141208_park – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starlings: nectar_RogerMoo_141208_park – LINK
Purple-backed Starling: nectar_RogerMoo_141208_park – LINK

7. Syzygium aqueum (water apple)
Munias
Munia: nest_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_180408_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Munia: nest_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_070608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_AmarSingh_090811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

8. Syzygium cumini (jiwat, salam)
Asian Koel: fruit_RCorlett_010106_Hongkong – LINK

9. Syzygium grande (sea apple)
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: nectar_RSubaraj_231005_forest – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: nectar_R Subaraj_231005_forest – LINK
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher: insect-flower_RSubaraj_231005_forest – LINK
Fruit-doves
Jambu Fruit-dove: fruit_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_010108_park – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: leaf_SunChongHong_011211_urban – LINK
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: leaf_SunChongHong_011211_urban-garden – LINK
Leafbirds
Golden-fronted Leafbird: nectar_RSubaraj_231005_forest – LINK
Greater Green Leafbird: nectar_RSubaraj_231005_forest – LINK
Lorys
Red Lory: fruit_JWee_011106_rural – LINK
Mynas
Javan Mynas: roost_WuEuHeng-YCWee_Nov.05_roadside – LINK
Javan Myna: roost – Sodhi & Sharp, 2006
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_SunChongHong_030511_urban – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starlings: roost_WuEuHeng-YCWee_Nov-05_roadside – LINK
Purple-backed Starling: roost_WuEuHeng-YCWee_Nov-05_roadside – LINK
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_RSubaraj_231005_forest – LINK

10. Syzygium malaccense (jambu bol)
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_AngieNg_260107_roadside – LINK

11. Syzygium polyanthum (salam)
Barbets
Red-crowned Barbets: fruit_ChanYokeMeng-MChan-YCWee_190706_forest – LINK
Bulbuls
Cream-vented Bulbul: fruit_LimPohBee_300709_urban – LINK
Cream-vented Bulbul: fruit_RSubaraj_231012_rural – LINK
Olive-winged Bulbul: fruit_RSubaraj_231012_rural – LINK
Red-eyed Bulbul: fruit_RSubaraj_231012_rural – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK
Drongos
Greater Racket-tailed Drongo: insect_RSubaraj_231012_rural – LINK
Fairy-bluebirds
Asian Fairy-bluebird: fruit_RSubaraj_231012_rural – LINK
Flycatchers
Asian Brown Flycatcher: insect_RSubaraj_231012_rural – LINK
Fruit-doves
Jambu Fruit-dove: fruit_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_010108 – LINK
Green-pigeons
Orange-breasted Green-pigeon: fruit_JonathanCheah-AlbertLow_park – LINK
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: fruit_YCWee_230610_roadside – LINK
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: nectar_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird: fruit_RSubaraj_231012_rural – LINK
Lorys
Violet-necked Lory: nectar_HengFuhai_011106_urban – LINK
Warblers
Arctic Warbler: insect_RSubaraj_231012_rural LINK-
Yellow-browed Warbler: insect_RSubaraj_231012_rural – LINK

12. Xanthostemon chrysanthus (golden penda)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nectar_YCWee_300311_roadside – LINK
Doves
Zebra Dove: nesting_YCWee_Jul-05_roadside – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: nectar_YCWee_300311_roadside – LINK
Lorikeets
Rainbow Lorikeet: nectar_YCWee_300311_roadside – LINK
Mynas
Javan Myna: nectar_AmarSingh_300311_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Javan Myna: nest-material_RSubaraj-YCWee_140606_roadside – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_YCWee_300311_roadside – LINK
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_LenaChow_190712_urban – LINK

Nyctaginaceae
1. Bougainvillea spp. (bougainvillea)
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: forage_YCWee_260206_urban-garden – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: forage_YCWee_260206_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_240912_Kuching-Sarawak-Malaysia – LINK.
White-eyes
Oriental White-eye: forage_YCWee_260206_urban-garden – LINK

Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaea sp. (waterlily)
Great Egret: forage_LenaChow_041212_park-pond – LINK
White-breasted Waterhen: forage_LenaChow_041212_park-pond – LINK

Oleaceae
1. Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine)
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nest-material-YCWee280806 – LINK

2. Olea brachiata (sea olive)
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeons: fruit_VD’Rozario_271010_rural – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_VD’Rozario_271010_urban – LINK

Onagraceae
1. Fuchsia hybrida (fuchsia)
Black-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_161009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

Orchidaceae
1. Dendrobium cruminatum (pigeon orchid)
Scaly-breasted Munia: nesting_HowardBanwell_190509_roadside – LINK

2. Epiphyllum oxypetalum (keng hua)
Common Tailorbird: leaf-bath_YCWee_050307_urban-garden – LINK

Oxalidaceae
1. Averrhoa carambola (starfruit)
Bulbuls
Red-whiskered Bulbul: flower-bud_YCWee_261107_urban-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: anting_YCWee_040808_urban-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: flower-bud_YCWee261107_urban-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nesting_YCWee_270908_urban-garden – LINK
Corellas
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_YCWee_220107_urban-garden – LINK
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_YCWee_280807_urban-garden – LINK
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird: insect_YCWee_220107_Urban-garden – LINK
Common Tailorbird: nesting_YCWee_180608_urban-garden – LINK

Passifloraceae (passion fruit)
1. Passiflora coccinea
Spectacled Spiderhunter: nectar_AdrianLim_111208_Malaysia – LINK

2. Passiflora laurifolia (passion fruit)
Tanimbar Corella: fruit_DavidJXTan_161012_roadside – LINK

Phytolaccaceae
1. Rivina humilis (pigeonberry, bloodberry)
Brown-throated Sunbird: fruit_AmarSingh_191209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

Piperaceae
1. Piper sp.
Bulbuls
Crean-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_011212_Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Red-eyed Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_011212_Perak-Malaysia – LINK

2. Piper aduncum (matico)
Orange-bellied Flowerpeckers: fruit_AmarSingh_DWells_290310_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK


[l-r: Axonopus compressus; Cynodon dactylon; Eleusine indica; Paspalum conjugatum and Panicum sp.]

Poaceae (=Gramineae)
1. Axonopus compressus (carpet grass)
Munias
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_YCWee_061007_urban-garden – LINK
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_YCWee_100210_urban – LINK

2. Bamboos
Broadbills
Banded Broadbill: nesting-material-leaves_IrfanChoo_121207_Malacca-Malaysia –
LINK
Black-and-red Broadbill: nesting_DaisyO’Neill_230812_Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: nest-material (leaf)_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_270608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Munias
Munia: nest_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_180408_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Sparrows
Java Sparrow: fruit_AmarSingh_220312_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

3. Chrysopogon aciculatus (love grass)
Munias
Black-headed Munia: fruit_AmarSingh_170611_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird: nest-material_AmarSingh_260612_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

4. Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_YCWee_061007_urban-garden – LINK

5. Digitaria sp. (crab grass)
White-headed Munia: fruit_YangWeixing_230509_Bintan-Indonesia – LINK

6. Echinochloa colonum (jungle rice or padi burong)
Chestnut Munia: fruit_ChrisLee_210509_rural – LINK

7. Eleusine indica
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_YCWee_061007_urban-garden – LINK

8. Eragrostis sp.
Scaly-breasted Munia: nest-material_AmarSingh_240510-Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

9. Gigantochloa scortechinii (giant bamboo)
Pin-tailed Parrotfinch: fruit_AmarSingh_160909_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK.

10. Imperata cylindrica (lalang)
Cisticolas
Zitting Cisticola: nest-material-plant_AmarSigh_250710_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Munias
Munia: nest-material_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_070608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Scaly-breasted Munia: nest-material (floss)_AmarSingh_240510_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird: nest-material (floss)_YCWee_010507_urban – LINK
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird: nest-material (fruit)_YCWee_180608_urban-garden – LINK
Dark-necked Tailorbird: nest-material (fruit)_LinYangchen_090608_urban – LINK
Weavers
Baya Weaver: nest-material (fruit)_YCWee-TanTeoSeng_220708_Johor-Malaysia – LINK

11. Ischaemum sp. (centipede grass)
Chestnut Munia: fruit_WilsonChong_100509_Brunei – LINK

12. Oryza sativa (padi)
White-rumped Munia: fruit_JWee_230509_Malaysia – LINK

13. Panicum spp. (panic grass)
Munias
Chestnut Munia: fruit_LenaChow_210509_rural – LINK
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_YCWee_061007_urban-garden LINK

14. Panicum humidorum
Munia: nest-material_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_070608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK

15. Panicum maximum (Guinea grass)
Munias
White-headed Munia: fruit_HowardBanwell_180709_rural – LINK
Weavers
Baya Weaver: nesting-material_YCWee-KCTsang_220506_rural – LINK

16. Panicum repens (creeping panic grass)
Munia: nest-material_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_070608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK

17. Paspalum conjugatum (goose grass)
Munias
Munia: nest-material_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_070608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Black-headed Munia: fruit – Wells, 2007
Chestnut Munia: fruit_ChrisLee_070509_rural – LINK
White-headed Munia: fruit_AmarSingh_141211_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

18. Paspalum scrobiculatum (kodo grass)
Munias
Chestnut Munia: fruit_ChrisLee_070509_rural – LINK
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_YCWee_061007_urban-garden – LINK

19. Pennisetum sp. (pennisetum)
Munias
Chestnut Munia: fruit_ChrisLee_070509_rural – LINK
Chestnut Munia: fruit_LenaChow_200412_rural – LINK
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_RichardLim_230509_Bintan-Indonesia – LINK
White-headed Munia: fruit_LenaChow_200412_rural – LINK

20. Pennisetum polystachion (feathery pennisetum)
Baya Weaver: fruit_SeowBoonEu_180809_Malaysia – LINK

21. Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, napier grass)
Munias
Munia: nest-material_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_070608_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Black-headed Munia: fruit_AmarSingh_170611 –Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_AmarSingh_260310_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
White-headed Munia: fruit_AmarSingh_141211_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Weavers
Baya weaver: fruit_SeowBoonEu_180809_Malaysia – LINK

22. Thysanolaena latifolia (tiger grass)
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_DaisyO’Neill_230509_Malaysia – LINK

23. Urochloa subquadripara (lesser bracharia)
Munias
Chestnut Munia: fruit_WilsonChong_100509_Brunei – LINK
Scaly-breasted Munia: fruit_HowardBanwell_230509_rural – LINK

Rhamnaceae
1. Zizyphus mauritiana (ber, Indian plum)
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK

Rhizophoraceae
1. Bruguiera cylindrical (bakau putih)
Little Heron: nesting_JohnnyWee_040912_mangrove – LINK

Rubiaceae
1. Canthium sp.
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK
Ixora sp.
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_SunChongHong_121212_urban-garden – LINK
2. Ixora javanica (ixora)
Eurasian Tree Sparrow: insect_YCWee_071209_park – LINK

3. Morinda citrifolia (noni)
Barbets
Lineated Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_210811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_210811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_YCWee_060306_urban-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_YCWee_110107_urban-garden – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_AmarSingh_191011_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Asian Koel: fruit_YCWee_110107_urban-garden LINK
Mynas
Javan Myna: fruit_YCWee_060306_urban-garden – LINK
Javan Myna: fruit_YCWee_110107_urban-garden – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_AmarSingh_210811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: leaf-bath_YCWee_250208_urban-garden – LINK
Crimson Sunbird: leaf-bath_YCWee_040606_urban-garden – LINK
Crimson Sunbirds: nectar_YCWee_060306_urban-garden – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_LenaChow_300712_urban – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_AmarSingh_210811_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird: leaf-bath_YCWee_050307_urban-garden – LINK

4. Morinda elliptica (black morinda)
Barbets
Gold-whiskered Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_220909_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_KCTsang_071209_rural – LINK

5. Myrmecodia sp.
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_TeoSiyang_200712_Kuching-Malaysia – LINK

Rutaceae
1. Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime)
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: nest-material-bark_AmarSingh_301209_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

2. Murraya koenigii (curry-leaf tree)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: leaf-bath_YCWee_050307_urban-garden – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: nesting_YCWee_040411_urban-garden – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_SteffiKoh_220512_rural – LINK

Santalaceae
1. Santalum album (Indian sandalwood)
Asian Koel: fruit_SSreedharan_221011_India – LINK

Sapindaceae
1. Dimocarpus longan (longan)
Barn Owl: roost_ChewPingTing_231105_urban-garden – LINK

2. Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan)
Broadbills
Black and Red Broadbill: nesting_DaisyO’Neill_230812_Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_VD’Rozario_271010_urban – LINK
Hanging-parrots
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: fruit_AmarSingh_280110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Blue-crowned Hanging-parrot: fruit_DaisyO’Neill_210112_Malaysia – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_YCWee-TSTan_0806076-urban LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_MarcusNg_120609_rural – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_JWee_070210_rural – LINK
Oriental Pied Hornbill: nesting_Cremades & Lim, 2012
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_VD’Rozario_271010_urban – LINK
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird: fruit_AmarSingh_280110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Lorikeets
Rainbow Lorikeet: fruit_JWee_271112_garden – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_VD’Rozario_271010_urban – LINK
Spiderhunters
Yellow-eared Spiderhunter: fruit_AmarSingh_280110_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: fruit-juice_DaisyO’Neill_260112_Malaysia – LINK
Brown-throated Sunbird: fruit_JWee_271112_garden – LINK

3. Nephelium ramboutan-ake (pulasan)
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_ChrisLee_220909_rural – LINK

4. Pometia pinnata (kasai daun besar)
Sunda Pygmy Woodpeckers: insect_StevenChong_310810_urban –
LINK

Sapotaceae
1. Pouteria obovata = Planchonella obovata (sea gutta)
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_TeoSiyang_230712_park – LINK

Scrophuliaceae
1. Russelia equisetiformis (firecracker plant)
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_KCTsang_120910_urban – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_SunChongHong_121212_urban-garden – LINK

Solanaceae
1. Brugmansia x candida (angel’s trumpet)
Streaked Spiderhunter: nectar_LenaChow_240810_urban – LINK

2. Capsicum annuum (chilly)
Red-eyed Bulbul: fruit_HowardBanwell-SunChongHong_260209 – LINK

3. Solanum sp. (wild brinjal)
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_ChooTeikJu_041109_rural – LINK

Sterculiaceae
1. Commersonia bartramia (mason bee tree)
Baya Weaver: nest-material-fruit_YCWee-TanTeoSeng_250207_urban – LINK

2. Sterculia sp.
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

3. Sterculia parviflora or macrophyllia
Oriental Pied Hornbill: fruit_MarcusNg-NeoMeiLin_070712_rural – LINK

Theaceae
1. Ternstroemia sp.
Hornbill: fruit_Hornbill-Research-Foundation_Jan-08_Thailand – LINK

Tiliaceae
1. Muntingia calabura (West Indian cherry)
Barbets
Lineated Barbet: fruit_AmarSingh_230911_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_230911_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_LimSheauTorng_061212_urban – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_161111_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_JWee_151108_urban-garden – LINK
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_KCTsang_100907 – LINK
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_KCTsang_211006 – LINK
Orange-bellied Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_151212_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_HuangCheeThong_041009_park – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_KokTiong_100510_rural – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_LenaChow_090111_rural – LINK
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_151212_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_151111_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker: fruit_IngoWaschkies_110509_rural – LINK
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker: fruit_LimPohBee_120209_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Flowerpecker: fruit_AmarSingh_151212_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Green-pigeons
Pink-necked Green-pigeon: fruit_AmarSingh_230911_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_261007_KCTsang-YCWee_261007_urban – LINK
Leafbirds
Greater Green Leafbird: fruit_LimPohBee_120209_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Greater Green Leafbird: fruit_AmarSingh_111212_ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_AmarSingh_230911_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

Typhaceae
1. Typha angustifolia (cat’s tail, lesser bulrush)
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpeckers: nest-material_ChanYokeMeng-YCWee_290107_rural – LINK
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird: nest-material_YCWee_010507_urban – LINK
Swift
Palm Swift: nest-material_TSTan_200610_park – LINK

Urticaceae
1. Pipturus argenteus (Australian mulberry)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_LeeChiuSan_040612_urban – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_CalvinChang_301109_urban – LINK
Koels
Asian Koel: fruit_LeeChiuSan_040612_urban – LINK
Asian Koel: fruit_ChanYokeMeng-MChan_250108_rural – LINK
Mynas
Common Myna: fruit_LeeChiuSan_040612_urban – LINK
Javan Myna: fruit_LeeChiuSan_040612_urban – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_LeeChiuSan_040612_urban – LINK
Parakeets
Red-breasted Parakeet: fruit_LeeChiuSan_040612_urban – LINK
Starlings
Asian Glossy Starling: fruit_LeeChiuSan_040612_urban – LINK

2. Poikilospermum suaveolens
Laughingthrushes
Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush: flower_AmarSingh-110612_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK
Leafbirds
Blue-winged Leafbird: flower_FrancisYap_070612_forest – LINK
Greater Green Leafbird: flower_FrancisYap_070612_forest – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar_AmarSingh_300912_Kuching-Sarawak-Malaysia – LINK
Van Hasselt’s Sunbird: flower_FrancisYap_070612_forest – LINK

Verbenaceae
1. Clerodendrum paniculatum (Pagoda flower)
Brown-throated Sunbird: fruit_LenaChow_090812_urban – LINK

2. Duranta erecta = D. repens (golden dewdrop)
Munias
Munia: nesting_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_240708_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
White-rumped Munia: nesting_AmarSingh_231009_Ipoh-Malaysia – LINK

3. Lantana camara ‘Hybrida’ (lantana)
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_KCTsang_011112_urban-garden – LINK

4. Stachytarpheta indica (snakeweed>
Olive-backed Sunbird: nectar_KCTsang_011112_urban-garden – LINK

5. Stachytarpheta mutabilis (snakeweed)
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_BKLim_090209_Penang-Malaysia – LINK
Woodnymphs
Violet-crowned Woodnymph : nectar_CedricNgShuwei_290609_Panama – LINK
Rufous-crested: nectar_CedricNgShuwei_290609_Panama – LINK
Hummingbirds
Violet-headed Hummingbird: nectar_CedricNgShuwei_290609_Panama – LINK

Vitaceae
1. Cissus hastata (white-stemmed button vine)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_YCWee_220908_urban-garden – LINK
Flowerpeckers
Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker: fruit_YCWee_220908_urban-garden – LINK
Mynas
Javan Myna: fruit_YCWee_220908_urban-garden – LINK
Orioles
Black-naped Oriole: fruit_YCWee_260908_urban-garden – LINK

2. Vitis vinifera (grape)
Yellow-vented Bulbul: fruit_AmarSingh_250611_Ipoh-Perak-Malaysia – LINK

Zingiberaceae
1. Costus spicatus
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter: nectar-KelvinChang_240309_Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Brown-throated Sunbird: nectar-JeanHo_121211_urban – LINK

2. Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: leaf-bath_050307_urban-garden – LINK
Spiderhunters
Little Spiderhunter: nectar_StevenChong_020709_urban – LINK
Little Spiderhunter: nectar_LiuJianzhong_231209_?Hongkong – LINK
Sunbirds
Crimson Sunbird: nectar_YCWee090109_urban-garden – LINK

ADDENDUM:
This section is an addendum to the series. For convenience, the list is divided into two parts: unusual nesting materials and unusual nesting sites.

Plasticaceae is a family of “plants” with only a handful of genera first described in the 1960s. Metallicus johorensis was first discovered growing along the coastal fringe of Johor in Peninsular Malaysia. Years later, Cocos lucifera was reported growing in urban Selangor (above left). M. johorensis is closely related to the Hongkong’s M. hongkorensis, another urban species growing along the wayside (above right). In the Philippines, there is Dendro-iloilo condomensis that flowers mainly during the Christmas season of December (above centre). Unfortunately, many of the Metallicus spp. were subsequently attacked by the rust fungus Puccinia sp. that first appeared in mid-1990s, killing most of these trees.

Nesting Materials
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: toilet-paper_LenaChow_210210_urban-Singapore – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: tissue-paper_LenaChow_200310_balcony – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: plastic-bag_LenaChow_261012_urban-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: styrofoam_TanTeoSeng-YCWee_180808_Johor-Malaysia – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: styrofoam_AmarSingh_210210_Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Crows
House Crow: wire_YCWee_290307_urban-home – LINK
Crow: clothes-hangers_SunChongHong_280612_Bishan-Singapore – LINK
House Crow: clothes-hanger_”straycat”__290507_??? Japan – LINK
House Crow: grass-cutter-plastic-strips_TangHungBun_290507_roadisde – LINK
Jungle Crow: coat-hangers_“badaunt”_290507_Japan – LINK
Sunbirds
Olive-backed Sunbird: blue-synthetic-fibre_JeanHo_110510_balcony – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: cotton-wool_JudyQuah_310511_apartment – LINK
Tailorbirds
Common Tailorbird: cloth_DavidTanJianXiong_280712_urban – LINK
Wrens
Carolina Wren: hanging-flower-pot_PingLau_030607_stairwell_Washington-USA – LINK

Nesting Sites
Bulbuls
Yellow-vented Bulbul: plastic-plant_LenaChow_130407_private-garden – LINK
Yellow-vented Bulbul: rattan-basket_JeanHo-friend_130411_home – LINK
Fish-eagles
White-bellied Fish-eagle: communication-tower_SamsonTan_300509_rural – LINK
White-bellied Fish-eagle: transmission-tower_WilliamIp_110211_rural – LINK
Hornbills
Oriental Pied Hornbill: earthern-pot_LimChiaYing_070310_Selangor-Malaysia – LINK
Magpie-robins
Oriental Magpie-robin: mailbox_AmarSingh_050711_Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Mynas
Common Myna: box-roadside-powerline_AmarSingh_230912_Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Sunbirds
Sunbird: dangling-wire_RobertBreinl_151110_home – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: LimTingHan: underwear_LimTingHan_170312_backyard – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: bicycle_KwongWaiChong_260811_balcony – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: light-bulb_AmarSingh_260811_Perak-Malaysia – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: wind-chime_JeanHo_110510_balcony – LINK
Olive-backed Sunbird: clothes-line_Tingfang_170506_hostel – LINK

References:
1. Cremades, M. & S. C. Lim, 2012. Hornbills in the city: A conservation approach to hornbill study in Singapore. National Parks Board, Singapore. 222 pp.
2. Robson, C., 2008. A field guide to the birds of South-east Asia. New Holland, London. 544 pp.
3. Sodhi, N. S. & I. Sharp, 2006. Winged invaders: Pest birds in the Asia Pacific. SNP Reference, Singapore. 184 pp.
4. Wells, D.R., 1999. The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsular. Vol. I, Non-passerines. Academic Press, London. 648 pp.
5. Wells, D.R., 2007. The birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsular. Vol. II, Passerines. Christopher Helm, London. 800 pp.

NOTE:
The post in its current form has proven to be more than a little cumbersome. Thus subsequent updates need to be made in a more streamlined format. It is expected that there will be errors – in linkages, typography, etc. Should anyone detect any errors, please keep me informed. Thanks.




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  • 2 Responses to "The Complete Plant-Bird Relationship – version 1.0"

    1. Melinda says:

      Thank you very much for taking time to compile this listing, just what I need. :)

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